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Section III: Types of Rites in Hajj and `Umrah

Preamble – there are three types of rites:
1. Ifrad: Entering into ihram for Hajj alone.
2. Qiran: Entering into ihram for both `umrah and Hajj as a single rite. Alternatively, it is entering into ihram for `umrah alone and then combining Hajj with it before commencing the former’s circumambulation.
3. Tamattu`: Entering into ihram for `umrah during the months of Hajj, completing it and exiting the state of ihram, then entering into ihram for Hajj during the same year. Firstly: Rulings Regarding the Three Types of Rites
1. The permissibility of the three types of rites
It is permissible to enter into ihram with any of the three types of rites that one wishes: ifrad, qiran, or tamattu`. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
2. The rite performed by the Prophet ﷺ
The rite that the Prophet ﷺ effected with ihram was qiran. This is the position of Abu Hanifah and Ahmad, according to what is explicitly mentioned from him. It is the position of the imams of Hadith such as: Ishaq ibn Rahawayh and Ibn al-Mundhir. It is the position of choice of: Ibn Hazm, al-Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Hajar, al-Kamal ibn al-Humam, al-Shawkani, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
3. The best rite
Tamattu` is the best of rites for one who does not set off for the pilgrimage with a hady (sacrificial animal) with them. This is the position of the Hanbali school and one of two positions of al-Shafi`i. A group of the Salaf held this position. It is the position of choice of Ibn Hazm, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
4. Specifying a single rite
It is mustahabb to specify what one intends through ihram upon its start. This is explicitly mentioned by the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is (according to their strongest position), and the Hanbalis.
5. Non-specific ihram
If one enters ihram and does not specify what rite it is for, then one’s ihram is effected. One directs it to the type of rite desired before engaging in its specific actions. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
6. Talbiyah that is contrary to one’s intent
When talbiyah is contrary to one’s intent – such as when intending qiran but uttering the words of ifrad, etc. – then ihram is effected based on the intention, not by what was said. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir.
7. Forgetting what one intended through ihram
One who forgets what they intended through ihram is required to perform Hajj and `umrah. They perform the actions of qiran. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is.
8. Effecting the same state of ihram as so-and-so
Whoever intends the same state of ihram as so-and-so thereby effects the same state of ihram as them. If such a person does not know what so-and-so intended through ihram, then they are in an unspecified state of ihram that they may direct as they wish. This is explicitly mentioned by the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
Secondly: Ifrad in Hajj
Ifrad is to enter into ihram with the intention of Hajj alone, so one says: “At Your service, O Allah, with Hajj.” They then proceed with the actions of Hajj until completion. Thus, only one performance of circumambulation is required of them: the Mass Circumambulation (tawaf al-ifadah). [976] As for the arrival circumambulation (tawaf al-qudoom), it is not required of them according to the majority of jurists. As for the farewell circumambulation (tawaf al-wada`), it is only wajib according to the majority when leaving Mecca after the completion of rites, with the exception of a menstruating woman. This will be explained, Allah willing, in the section describing Hajj. Only one performance of walking between Safa and Marwah is required of them, which is the walking of Hajj (sa`y al-Hajj). They are not released from ihram except on the Day of Eid al-Adha. Blood (i.e. slaughtering) is not required of them, though it is mustahabb.
Thirdly: Qiran in Hajj
1. The definition of qiran
Qiran is to enter into ihram for `umrah and Hajj as a single rite, saying: “At Your service, O Allah, with `umrah as part of Hajj.”
2. Referring to qiran as tamattu`
In the terminology of the Salaf, the word tamattu` is used to mean qiran. This is the conclusion of Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Hajar, al-Kamal ibn al-Humam, al-Shinqiti, and others.
3. Methods of performing qiran
The default format for tamattu`
One enters into ihram for `umrah and Hajj together. One combines them in one’s ihram, saying: “At Your service with `umrah and Hajj” or, “At Your services with Hajj and `umrah”. [977] It is best to mention `umrah before Hajj in the talbiyah – saying, “At Your service with `umrah and Hajj” – because this was the talbiyah of the Prophet ﷺ, and because it comes before Hajj. Consensus on the validity of this method was related by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and al-Mubarakpuri.
Adding Hajj onto `umrah
One enters into ihram for `umrah, then adds Hajj onto it. Consensus on the permissibility of adding Hajj onto `umrah is quoted by: Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Qudamah, and al-Qurtubi.
If one adds Hajj onto `umrah, it must be before circumambulation. This is the positions of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, Ashhab from the Malikis, and it is the chosen position of Ibn `Abd al-Barr.
Adding `umrah onto Hajj
Scholars have differed regarding the ruling of adding `umrah onto Hajj. This occurs when one enters ihram for Hajj alone (ifrad) and then adds `umrah onto it. They are of two positions:
The first position: It is not valid to add `umrah onto Hajj. If one does so, they do not follow through, but rather continue with Hajj as ifrad. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is (according to the soundest), Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf.
The second position: It is permissible to add `umrah onto Hajj, and one thereby effects qiran. This is the position of the Hanafi school, the old position of al-Shaf`i, the position of al-Lakhmi of the Maliki school, and the positions of `Ata’ and al-Awza`i. Ibn `Uthaymin held this position to be strong.
4. Actions of qiran
The actions of qiran and ifrad are the same. One performing qiran is only required to perform ihram once, circumambulation once, and walking between Safa and Marwah once. They are not released except on the Day of Eid al-Adha. All of `umrah’s actions are subsumed under the actions of Hajj. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. It is the position of the majority of the Salaf.
5. The obligation of a hady upon one performing qiran
It is wajib for one performing qiran to offer a hady if they are not residents of Al-Masjid al-Haram. [978] Residents of al-Masjid al-Haram according to Hanafis are those living at the mawaqeet or closer to Mecca. According to Malikis, they are the residents of Mecca and Tuwa. Also included are the surrounding springs that are close enough such that prayers are not shortened when travelling to them. According to Shafi`is and Hanbalis, they are the people of Mecca, the Sacred Precinct, and those who are at distances from the Sacred Precinct that do not permit shortening prayers. This will be discussed later. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Fourthly: Tamattu` in Hajj
1. The definition of tamattu`
Tamattu` is to enter into ihram for `umrah during the months of Hajj, release oneself from it, and then to enter into ihram for Hajj the same year.
2. The reason it is called tamattu`
Scholars have mentioned reasons for it being named tamattu`, the most popular being two reasons:
The first reason: One performing tamattu` (literally: enjoyment) enjoys the benefit of only having to make a single journey as opposed to two separate ones. This is because each rite Hajj and `umrah would normally require ihram from the meeqat and leaving one’s homeland. If instead, one enjoys both rites in a single journey, then the other one no longer applies. Thus, the Sharia stipulated a sacrifice as a means of making up for what one missed. For this reason, blood is also required of one performing qiran. For this, the Companions referred to both as tamattu`. Also, this is why a Meccan performing qiran or tamattu` is not required to offer blood, for mawaqeet and travel do not apply to them.
The second reason: One performing tamattu` enjoys himself between `umrah and Hajj with women, perfume, and with everything that one in ihram may not do – from the time he is released from `umrah until the time of Hajj. This is what is meant by “until” in the word of Allah: “…so whosoever enjoys `umrah until Hajj…” (Al-Baqarah: 196) This demonstrates that there is enjoyment between `umrah and Hajj. The term tamattu` (enjoyment) also demonstrates this, for linguistically it means relishing and benefiting from something.
3. Methods of performing tamattu`
The default format for tamattu`
It is to enter into ihram for `umrah during the months of Hajj followed by entering into ihram for Hajj after completing `umrah. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and al-Qurtubi.
Unexpected (annulling Hajj and performing `umrah)
It is to enter into ihram for Hajj, then, before its circumambulation, one annuls their Hajj and performs `umrah. Then, after completing `umrah and releasing oneself from it, one enters into ihram for Hajj. This method is valid according to Hanbalis and Zahiris. It is the position of choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
4. Conditions for tamattu`
Entering into ihram for `umrah during the months of Hajj
A condition for tamattu` is to enter into ihram for `umrah during the months of Hajj. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and Ibn Qudamah.
Performing Hajj the same year
Performing Hajj the same year is a condition. If one performs `umrah during the months of Hajj but does not perform Hajj that year, but rather, the following year, this is not tamattu`. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Hazm and Ibn Qudamah.
Not travelling
It is a condition that one performing tamattu` not travel between `umrah and Hajj. [979] Hanafis specify that such a person may not return to their country. According to Malikis, it is that they not return to their country or a place farther away. According to Shafi`is and one narration from Ahmad, it is he not return to his meeqat. According to Hanbalis, it is that he not travela distance that would permit shortening prayers between `umrah and Hajj. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. This is the position of the generality of scholars.
Intending tamattu` at the start of `umrah or during it
Scholars have differed regarding whether one must intend tamattu` at the start of `umrah or during it. They are of two positons:
The first position: It is not necessary to intend tamattu`. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis [980] Hanafis do not mention it amongst the conditions of tamattu`, which indicates it is not a condition according to them. , Malikis, and Shafi`is (according to their soundest). It is the position of choice of Ibn Qudamah of the Hanbali school.
The second position: Intending tamattu` is a condition. [981] The time for the intention of tamattu` is when entering ihram for `umrah. Some hold that one may intend tamattu` as long as one is not done with actions of `umrah. This is like the difference of opinion regarding the timing of intending combining prayers. Some hold that it is when starting the first of the two while others hold that it remains until the end of the first prayer. This is the position of the Hanbali school and one position amongst Shafi`is. It is the position of choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
5. What are not conditions for tamattu`
That the Hajj and `umrah be on behalf of the same person
It is not a condition that the Hajj and `umrah be on behalf of the same person. [982] Thus, it is valid for the Hajj to be on behalf on one person and the `umrah on behalf of another. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [983] Hanafis did not mention it as a condition for tamattu`.
Tamattu` for residents of al-Masjid al-Haram
Residents of al-Masjid al-Haram may perform tamattu` and qiran, just like people from faraway lands. However, blood is not required of them. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis [984] Though Malikis consider qiran makruh for Meccans. , Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
What is meant by residents of al-Masjid al-Haram
Jurists have differed regarding what is meant by residents of al-Masjid al-Haram who are not required to offer blood for tamattu` and qiran. These positions include:
The first position: Residents of al-Masjid al-Haram are residents of Mecca, the Sacred Precinct, and those at a distance from the Sacred Precinct that does not permit shortening prayers. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools. It is the position of choice of al-Tabari.
The second position: They are residents of the Sacred Precinct. This is the position of a group of the Salaf. Ibn Hajar considered it the apparent meaning. It is the position of fatwa of the Permanent Council and the position of choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
6. What is required in tamattu`
Circumambulation and walking between Safa and Marwah in tamattu`
One performing tamattu` must perform circumambulation and walk between Safa and Marwah twice. One first performs a complete `umrah: circumambulating and walking between Safa and Marwah, then shaving or shortening the hair and being released from it. Then one enters into ihram for Hajj, circumambulating and walking between Safa and Marwah for Hajj. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. This is the position of a group of the Salaf.
Hady
It is wajib for one performing tamattu` to offer ritual blood if they are not a resident of al-Masjid al-Haram. Whoever is unable to do so must fast three days during Hajj and seven upon returning. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Rushd, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Muflih, and al-Shawkani.
Fifthly: Making Hajj and `Umrah Conditional
1. The ruling of making Hajj and `umrah conditional
It is valid to make Hajj and `umrah conditional. [985] No particular wording is required. One may effect Hajj or `umrah and then say: “If a deterrent deters me, then my place of release is where You deter me.” Similarly, one may say: “O Allah, my place of release is where You deter me.” This is the position of the Shafi`i, [986] It is permissible according to them. Hanbali, [987] It is unconditionally mustahabb according to them. and Zahiri [988] It is wajib according to them. schools, as well as the positon of a group of the Salaf.


2. The benefit of making them conditional
The benefit of making them conditional is that if one is deterred from completing the rites by a valid cause, then they are released from it without having to offer a hady, fast, make it up for another time, or anything else. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools. It is the position of choice of Ibn Hazm, Ibn al-Qayyim, and Ibn `Uthaymin.


3. When is making them a condition legislated?
It is legislated to make them conditional when one fears something that will prevent them from completing the rites. This is the position of choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
4. Making release conditional upon illness and the like
If one says: “If I fall ill (or the like) then I am released”, then whenever the condition occurs, they are released. If instead they say: “then I may release myself” or “my place of release is where You have deterred me”, then they are free to choose whether to remain in ihram or be released. This is the soundest of the Shafi`i school and the position of the Hanbali school. Ibn `Uthaymin agreed with this position.
5. Making release conditional upon one’s will
It is not valid to say: “I may release myself whenever I will.” This is explicitly mentioned by Shafi`i and Hanbali jurists as well as Ibn `Uthaymin.



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