Preamble: The Meaning of Restrictions, Expiation, and their Types

Firstly: Meaning of the restrictions of Ihram
Linguistically: Restrictions are what is prohibited, itself being a synonym for haram.
Technically: Restrictions of ihram are prohibited acts that one in ihram must avoid due to being in ihram and engaging in rites.

Secondly: Definition of expiation
Linguistically: Expiation is to offer something in place of another in order to protect it. From this is the expiation (ransom) of a prisoner and freeing them with wealth.
Technically: Expiation is what is required upon engaging in a prohibited act or omitting a wajib act. It is called fidyah (ransom/redemption) due to being mentioned in the Word of Allah: “…a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or offering…” (Al-Baqarah, 196)

Thirdly: Number of restrictions of Ihram
- There are seven restrictions which apply to men and women:
1- Cutting the hair.
2- Clipping the nails.
3- Perfume.
4- Hunting.
5- Entering into a marriage contract.
6- Sexual intercourse.
7- Sexual fondling.
- Two restrictions are specific to men:
1- Wearing sewn garments.
2- Covering the head.
- Two restrictions are specific to women:
1- The face-veil (niqab).
2- Wearing gloves. [989] Wearing gloves is prohibited for men as well, and is included under wearing sewn garments, which is prohibited for men in ihram.

Fourthly: Categories of restrictions with respect to expiation
- Restrictions of ihram are of four categories with respect to expiation:
1- Acts whose expiation is for suffering (the expiation of suffering is one of: blood, feeding the needy, or fasting).
2- Acts whose expiation is recompense with the like of the offense: hunting.
3- Acts with no expiation due: marriage contracts.
4- Acts with the maximum expiation: sexual intercourse.