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Section II: The Sunnah Acts of Ihram

Firstly: Bathing
1. The ruling of bathing for ihram
It is sunnah to bathe for ihram. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
2. The ruling of bathing for a woman experiencing menstruation or post-partum bleeding
It is sunnah for a woman experiencing menstruation or post-partum bleeding to bathe for ihram. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
3. Matting the hair is mustahabb
It is mustahabb after bathing for ihram to mat [969] Matting the hair means plaiting it with a gummy substance or the like (which causes the hair to bunch together) and applying an adhesive substance that holds it together and stops it from frizzing and falling out. one’s hair. [970] Al-Baghawi says: “This only done by one who will remain involved in the acts of Hajj and fulfilling its rites for a long time, not one performing `umrah and who will be released from it by performing circumambulation and walking [between Safa and Marwah].” (Sharh al-Sunnah, 7/79) This is the position of the Shafi`i school and one position amongst Hanafis and Malikis.
Secondly: Ihram for Men in a Sarong and a Cloak
It is mustahabb for a man to enter ihram in a sarong and a cloak. Al-Nawawi and Ibn Taymiyyah related consensus on this.
When one entering ihram lacks a sarong or sandals
If one entering ihram lacks a sarong, he wears trousers. If he lacks sandals, he wears socks. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir and Ibn Qudamah.
Thirdly: Applying Perfume
1. The ruling of applying perfume before ihram
It is sunnah to apply perfume to the body, not the clothing, before entering into ihram – even if its effects remain after ihram. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf.
2. Applying perfume to garments in ihram
One intending ihram is not allowed to perfume their garments before or after ihram. This is the position of the Hanafi and Maliki schools and one position amongst Shafi`is and Hanbalis. It is the position of choice of al-Ajurri, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Fourthly: Ihram Immediately after Prayer and Does it have a Specific Prayer?
1. Entering into ihram at the conclusion of prayer
It is mustahabb to enter into ihram after praying. [971] Ibn al-Mundhir says: “Everyone holds that it is mustahabb for one in ihram to start the talbiyah immediately after praying an extra or fard prayer at the meeqat.” (Al-Tamheed, 15/132) This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
2. Does ihram have a specific prayer?
Ihram does not have a prayer specific to it. This is the position of some Shafi`is and a narration from Ahmad. It is the position of choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Albani, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
3. When does one enter into ihram?
It is mustahabb to enter into ihram when one’s mount rises. [972] i.e. When it stands and is ready for departure. This is the position of the Maliki school and the soundest of the Shafi`i school. It is the position of choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
4. Uttering the words of rites at the conclusion of ihram
It is mustahabb to utter what one intends in regarding the rites of ihram in terms of Hajj or `umrah. [973] Ibn `Uthaymin says: “Realize that intention occurs in the heart… There is no difference in this regard with respect to Hajj, `umrah, or anything else. Even in the case of Hajj, it is not sunnah for one to say: ‘O Allah, I intend `umrah’ or ‘I intend Hajj’ – for this has not been related from the Prophet ﷺ. Rather, one performs talbiyah in accordance with their intention. Talbiyah is not the same as uttering one’s intention, for it entails responding to the call of Allah. Thus, it is an act of invocation in itself, not a declaration of what is in the heart. For this reason, one says: ‘At your service with `umrah’ or ‘At your service with Hajj’. (Al-Sharh al-Mumti`, 2/291) This is the position of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools. It is the position of choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Rajab, and Ibn Baz. It is also the fatwa of the Permanent Council.
Fifthly: Talbiyah
1. The definition of talbiyah
Linguistically, talbiyah is responding to a call. It is used to mean engaging in obedience.
Technically, talbiyah is when one in ihram says: “I am at Your service, O Allah, I am at Your service. You have no partner. I am at Your service. Praise and blessing belong to You, and the Kingdom. You have no partner.”
2. The ruling of talbiyah
Talbiyah is a sunnah during ihram. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools. It is the position of choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
3. Raising the voice in talbiyah
It is sunnah for a man to raise his voice in talbiyah. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [974] They explicitly mention that he does not raise his voice greatly in a way that causes him hardship lest harm befall him.
4. How a woman performs talbiyah
A woman does not raise her voice in talbiyah. Rather, she does so quietly to the extent that she can hear herself. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. This is the position of a group of the Salaf.
5. The timing of talbiyah
When talbiyah starts
It is mustahabb to start talbiyah from the time of ihram. [975] It is sunnah that he praise Allah, glorify Him, and exalt Him before commencing. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
When talbiyah for Hajj ends
Talbiyah for Hajj ends at the start of pelting Jamrat al-`Aqabah on the Day of Eid al-Adha. There is no difference in this whether one is offering a Hajj performance of ifrad, qiran, or tamattu`. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf.
When talbiyah for `umrah ends
Talbiyah for `umrah ends upon beginning circumambulation. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf. The majority of scholars have held this conclusion.


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