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Section II: Makruh Acts in Prayer

Firstly: Fidgeting in Prayer
It is makruh to fidget [395] Examples of fidgeting in prayer include: cracking one’s knuckles, adjusting one’s clothing a lot, looking at one’s watch, and so on. in prayer. Consensus on this was related by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and Ibn Qudamah.
Secondly: Turning Around in Prayer
It is makruh to turn around in prayer without need. Consensus on this was narrated by Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Nawawi, al-`Uthmani, and Ibn Hajar.
Thirdly: Facing That Which Distracts One from Prayer
It is makruh to face something that distracts one from prayer. [396] Examples of this include what is commonly found in some mosques in the direction of the qiblah, such as electronic clocks, elaborate designs of the mihrab, window curtains, etc. Also included in distractions are carpets bearing illustrations and designs. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Fourthly: Praying in the Presence of Food that One Desires
It is makruh to begin praying in the presence of food that one desires. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Fifthly: Praying While Holding Back Urine or Faeces
It is makruh to start prayer while holding back urine [397] In other words, having a full bladder. or faeces [398] In other words, while needing to have a bowel movement and holding it in. by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Sixthly: Reciting the Qur’an When Bowing or Prostrating
One praying is forbidden from reciting the Qur’an when bowing or prostrating. Consensus on this was related by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and Ibn Taymiyyah.
Seventhly: Being Mentally Preoccupied During Prayer
It is makruh to pray while mentally preoccupied with worldly matters that are not related to prayer or that do not invalidate the prayer if left alone. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Hazm, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Taymiyyah.
Eighthly: Lifting the Gaze towards the Sky in Prayer
Scholars are of two positions regarding lifting the gaze towards the sky [399] Ibn Taymiyyah mentions that scholars are in agreement that it is forbidden. in prayer:
The first position: It is makruh to raise the gaze towards the sky in prayer. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
The second opinion: It is prohibited to raise the gaze towards the sky in prayer. This is the position of Ibn Hazm and was chosen by Ibn Taymiyyah, al-San`ani, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Ninthly: Folding the Garments and Braiding the Hair in Prayer
It is makruh to fold one’s garments and braid [400] In other words, folding one’s hair or tying it up. one’s hair in prayer. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Tenthly: Placing One’s Hand on One’s Side in Prayer
It is makruh to place one’s hand on one’s side [401] The side the part of the torso between the top of the hips and the bottom of the ribs. There are two of them, one on each side. in prayer by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [402] Some Hanafis give weight to the idea that this is makruh tahriman.
Eleventhly: Clasping the Hands in Prayer
It is makruh to clasp the hands in prayer. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Twelfthly: Spitting in the Direction of the Qiblah or to the Right in Prayer
It is makruh to spit to the right or in the direction of the qiblah in prayer. This is by agreement of four schools of jurisprudence.


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