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Section I: Permissible Acts in Prayer

Firstly: Slight Movement Out of Need
It is permissible to move slightly [388] The criterion for what makes a slight movement in prayer returns to customarily acknowledged practice according to Shafi`is and Hanbalis. The most correct opinion according to Hanafis regarding the difference between a slight movement and a lot of movement is if a person were to observe him from afar and not doubt that he is not praying, then it is a lot of movement and invalidates the prayer. If the observer remains doubtful, the prayer is not invalidated. Malikis provide the following examples of slight movements in prayer: blinking, scratching the body, gesturing with the hand, and walking to close a nearby gap in the line of prayer. out of need in prayer, and this does not invalidate it. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Rushd, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and al-Zayla`i.
Secondly: One Praying Responds to Salams with a Hand Gesture
One praying responds to salams with a hand gesture. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, [389] The strongest opinion among Malikis is that it is wajib to respond to salams with a hand gesture when praying. Shafi`is, [390] The Shafi`i position is that it is mustahabb to respond to salams immediately with a hand gesture, or after the prayer in words. and Hanbalis. Most scholars are of this view.
Thirdly: Spitting in Prayer
It is generally permissible to spit in prayer if there is a need. Ibn Battal related consensus on this.
Fourthly: Praying in Sandals
It is permissible to pray in sandals [391] However, if mosques are carpeted and clean and one fears making them dirty, or fears pushing people away, he should not pray in them. if they are known to be pure. [392] The sandals should be wiped of dirt and anything unpleasant if one intends to pray in them. This is true in general. [393] There is a difference of opinion regarding praying in sandals inside the Ka`bah. Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Rajab related consensus on this.
Fifthly: Killing Scorpions and Poisonous Snakes in Prayer
It is permissible to kill scorpions and poisonous snakes in prayer. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and one position among Malikis. It is also the position of the majority of scholars.
Sixthly: Smiling in Prayer
Smiling in prayer does not invalidate it. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence, and is the position of the majority of scholars.
Seventhly: Prostrating on the Round Part of a Turban
It is permissible to prostrate on the round part of a turban, but it is makruh without a valid reason. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, and Hanbalis. It is also the position of some of the Salaf.
Eighthly: Using a Legislated Invocation for Something Outside of Prayer
Prayer is not invalidated by glorification or supplications if it does not address a created being, such as when one: sneezes and praises Allah, sees something that disturbs him and says: “Truly, we belong to Allah, and unto Him we return”, or sees something that amazes him and says, “Glorified be Allah”. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [394] Hanafis make it a condition that one intends not to respond to anyone else.

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