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Section II: Conditions for the Validity of Prayer

Firstly: Purification from Hadath
1. Purification from major and minor hadath
Purification from major and minor hadath is a condition for the validity of prayer. Consensus has been quoted on this by: Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn Battal, al-Nawawi, and al-`Iraqi
2. The prayer of the one who forgot he is in a state of hadath
Whoever prays without purity out of forgetfulness or ignorant of his hadath must repeat his prayer. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by: Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyyah, and Ibn Rajab.
3. The one missing the two purifiers
Whoever does not find water or dust, or is kept away from them for a legitimate reason, [291] Such as being locked up as a war prisoner or otherwise, tied to a bed, or ill to a degree that does not allow him to use water or dust, and so on. prays according to his condition and does not have to repeat. This is the position of the Hanbalis, Ashhab from the Malikis, and a position among Shafi`is. It is also the choice of al-Bukhari, Ibn Hazm, al-Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyyah, and Ibn `Uthaymin, and it is the verdict of the Permanent Committee.
Secondly: Purification from Najas
1. Purification from najas as a condition
Purification from najas in one's body, clothes, and prayer areas is a condition for the validity of prayer. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, a position among the Malikis, and it is narrated from the majority of scholars.
2. Removing najasah when unable to or being harmed
If a person is unable to remove najasah or is harmed by its removal, then he prays with it without the need for repetition. This is the position of the Hanafis and a narration among Hanablis, as well as being the choice of Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
3. Removing najasah during the prayer
If najasah reaches the garment or body of a person in prayer, then he removed it until it had no remains on him, his prayer is valid. Consensus has been quoted over this by al-Nawawi and Ibn Hajar.
4. Praying with najasah out of ignorance or forgetfulness
Whoever prays with a najasah on him out of ignorance or forgetfulness of it, then his prayer is valid and he does not need to repeat it. This is a narration from Ahmad and al-Shafi`i's old position. It is also the choice of Ibn al-Mundhir, al-Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
5. Uncertainty between pure clothes with najas or haram ones
If pure clothes become mixed with najas or haram ones, likes stolen or forcefully taken clothes, then their owner seeks clarity and investigates, [292] Investigation is the seeking of truth and searching for what is desired.   and then prays in the ones he believes to be pure. This is the position of the Hanafis, Shafi`is, and a position among Malikis. It is also the choice of Ibn `Aqil al-Hanbali, Ibn Taymiyyah, and Ibn `Uthaymin; and it is quoted by al-Qadi Abu Tayyib as the position of the majority of scholars.
6. Pray in the clothes of non-Muslims
- What is sewn by disbelievers
Prayer is permissible in clothes sewn or knitted by disbelievers. Ibn Qudamah has quoted consensus over this.
- What has been worn by disbelievers
Prayer is permissible in clothes that have been worn by disbelievers. [293] As long as he does not have certainty it is najis. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, [294] It is permissible for Hanafis to pray in the clothes of non-Muslim statesmen (dhimmis) except the izar and the top, then it is makruh to pray in them since they are close to the place of hadath, and they may not clean themselves adequately from urine. Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Zahiris.
Thirdly: Where the Prayer is Impermissible [295] Prayer is legislated in all land generally; consensus has been quoted over that by Ibn Taymiyyah.
1. Camel pens [296] A`tan is the place where camels flock to drink especially, and it is said it is their abode generally.
Prayer is invalid if performed in a camel pen. This is the position of the Hanbalis, it is narrated from Malik, and the position of a group of jurists. It is also the choice of Ibn Hazm and Ibn `Uthaymin.
2. Bathing areas [297] Ibn `Uthaymin said: “Hammam is a bathing area where people come and wash themselves, … what is emant here is not toilets.” Al-Sharh al-Mumti` (243/3)
Prayer in bathing areas is permissible but makruh. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, [298] But they said that if he is certain of the purity of his area then there is no dislike. Shafi`is, and a narration from Ahmad.
3. Graveyards [299] For Hanbalis upon the relied upon position of their school, one or two graves make no difference as long as he does not reach it, and Ibn Taymiyyah viewed even that as problematic.
Prayer is invalid if performed in a graveyard. This is the position of the Hanbalis, and it is attributed to a lot of scholars. It is the position of Ibn Hazm, and the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, al-San`ani, Ibn Baz, and `Uthaymin.
4. Tips [300] Al-Mawardi said: “Mazbalah is what has been collected together of najasah, dusted things, and rubbish, even if it is pure.” Al-Insaf (346/1) and butcheries
Prayer is valid if performed in a rubbish tip or at a butcher's as long as there is no najasah there. This is the position of the Hanafis and Malikis, and it is the choice of Ibn Hazm and Ibn Baz.
5. Trodden paths [301] Qari`at al-tariq is where people strike their feet often – the middle of the road. It has also been said that it is the highest part of the road.
It is makruh to perform the prayer on trodden paths. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is.
6. Forcefully taken land
- The ruling of prayer on usurped land
Prayer is haram in usurped land. Consensus has been quoted on this by al-Nawawi.
- The validity of prayer in usurped land
Prayer in forcefully taken land is valid. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, and a narration from Ahmad.
7. Churches [302] Bi`ah is the place of worship for Christians, and it has been said it is the place of worship for Jews, and the plural is biya`ah. and synagogues [303] Kanisah is the place of worship for Jews, though it is also used for the place of worship of Christians.
Performing prayer in churches and synagogues is makruh. [304] Ibn Taymiyyah said: “The sound transmitted position of `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated by Ahmad and others, is that if it had images in it, he did not pray in it, because Angels do not enter an abode wherein there are images. The Prophet ﷺ did not enter the Ka`bah until all images were removed therefrom. Likewise, `Umar said: ‘We would not enter their temples while they still have images in them.’ It is the same as a mosque built on a grave.” Majmu` al-Fatawa (162/22) This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, a narration from Ahmad, and the position of a group from the Salaf.
8. Places of sin and devil habitation
Performing prayer in places of sin and where devils habitate is makruh. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is. [305] Al-Nawawi said: “Prayer in the abodes of devils is makruh by agreement, like places for wine and other lewd and obscene sins, and churches and synagogues, and their like.” Al-Majmu` (162/3)
Fourthly: The Entering of the Time
1. The time entering as a condition
That the time for a prayer enters and it is prayed after that is a condition for its validity. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn Rushd, Ibn Qudamah, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and Ibn Hazm.
2. Praying before the due time
It is haram to perform a prayer before its time. Whoever prays before the time, his prayer is not sufficient for him. Consensus has been quoted over this by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and Ibn Taymiyyah.
3. Delaying the prayer outside its time
It haram to delay the prayer after its due time deliberately without an excuse. Consensus has been quoted over this by Ibn Hazm and Ibn Taymiyyah.
4. Time for fajr (dawn) prayer
- Start of fajr
The start of the fajr prayer is when the second twilight [306] The second twilight is the scattered one, and it is the true fajr. It is called scattered due to the scattering in the horizon. appears. Consensus has been quoted that fajr starts with twilight and ends with sunrise: Ibn al-Mundhir, al-Tahawi, and Ibn Hazm. Ibn `Abd al-Barr and al-Nawawi quote consensus over its entering time being with twilight.
- Fajr prayer before its time
It is haram to pray fajr before its time. Consensus has been quoted over this by al-Nawawi.
- Taghlis [307] Taghlis is praying fajr prayer in ghalas, which is the darkness at the very end of the night. in fajr
It is best to pray fajr in its early tine of validity if it has entered, and this is called Taghlis. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, Zahiris, and a group from the Salaf.
- The ending of the time for fajr
The optional time for fajr extends until sunrise. This is the Hanafi and Hanbali positions, [308] Al-Mardawi said: “The correct position in the school is that there is no time for necessity, rather a time for virtue and an optional time, like maghrib and zuhr.” Al-Insaf (310/1) and the correct position from Malik. It is the position of the majority of scholars from the early and late generations, as well as the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, al-San`ani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
5. The time for zuhr (midday) prayer
- The start of zuhr
The start of zuhr is when the sun is at its highest in the sky, at its zenith. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and al-Nawawi.
- The ending of zuhr
The ending of zuhr prayer is when the shadow of a thing is the same as the length of the thing itself without the initial length that is there at the sun’s zenith. [309] Ibn Qudamah said: “The meaning of zawal is its leaning away from the side of the sky, and this is known through the length of a person’s shadow after ensuring it’s at its shortest.” Al-Mughni (270/1) This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, Zahiris, and a narration from Abu Hanifah.
- Praying zuhr early
It is mustahabb to pray zuhr early when it is neither hot nor rainy. Ibn Qadamah and al-Nawawi have quoted consensus over this matter.
- Mustahabb to wait for the intense heat to subside before praying zuhr [310] Ibrad is to delay zuhr until there is bard, which is the easing of the sun’s intense heat. Scholars differed in its degree, and whether it is to do with the congregational prayer only or not, and similar issues.
It is mustahabb to wait for the cooling of zuhr in intense heat, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [311] Hanafis view ibrad as valid for summer unconditionally, regardless of how intense the heat is.
6. Time for `asr (afternoon) prayer
- Start of `asr prayer
The time for `asr prayer enters when the shadow of a thing is the same length as the thing itself, discounting the length that is there during the sun’s zenith. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, [312] Ibn Rushd said: “Malik, al-Shafi`i, Dawud, and a group, all agree on the ending of zuhr also being the beginning of `asr, and this is when every length has its shadow as the same length. However, Malik viewed a time at the end of zuhr and the start of `asr that overlaps the two, the time duration of which is what would take to pray four units of pray. As for al-Shafi`i, Abu Thawr, and Dawud, then the end of one time is the beginning of the next without splitting or overlapping.” Bidayat al-Mujtahid (94/1) Shafi`is, Hanbalis, a narration from Abu Hanifah, the position of Muhammad and Abu Yusuf from the Hanafis, and the choice of Ibn Hazm.
- Optional time for `asr
The optional time for `asr is until the sun starts to yellow. [313] “Its yellowness is considered on the earth and walls, not the solar disc itself.” See also: Mawahib al-Jalil, al-Hattab (19/2) This is the position of the Malikis, a narration from Ahmad, and the position of a group of the Salaf.  It is the choice of Ibn Hazm, taken as the apparent by Ibn Muflih from the Hanbalis. It is the choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
- Time for `asr in necessity
Time for `asr in necessity is until maghrib. Ibn Taymiyyah has quoted consensus on this.
7. Time for maghrib (sunset) prayer
-The start of maghrib time
Maghrib prayer starts when the sun has completely set. Consensus has been quoted over this by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Kasani, Ibn Qudamah, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Taymiyyah.
- The ending of maghrib prayer time
Maghrib time extends until the redness in the sky (shafaq) disappears. This is the position of the Hanbalis, Zahiris, a narration from Malik, al-Shafi`is old position, the position of a group from the Salaf, and the majority of scholars. It is also the choice of al-Qurtubi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-San`ani, al-Shawkani, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
- Praying maghrib early
Praying maghrib prayer as early as possible as soon as it comes in is better than delaying it. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Qudamah, al-Qurtubi, and al-Nawawi.
8. The time of `isha' (night) prayer
- The start of `isha' time
The time for `isha' prayer time starts when the redness in the sky disappears. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, al-Nawawi, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and al-Shawkani.
- What shafaq refers to
Shafaq refers specifocly to a red tinge in the sky, which, when it disappears, the time for maghrib ends and that of `isha' starts. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, Zahiris, a narration from Abu Hanifah, the position of Abu Yusuf and Muhammad, and the majority of scholars.
- The ending of `isha' prayer
Scholars have differed over the end time of `isha' prayer according to a few views, the strongest of which are two:
The first: is that the optional time for `isha' is until the middle of the night, and its time of necessity until twilight and the start of fajr. This is a narration from Ahmad, al-Shafi`is old position, and the position of Ibn Habib and Ibn al-Mawwaz from the Malikis. It is also the choice of Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Shawkani, and Ibn Baz.
The second: is that the time for `isha' is until the middle of the night, without an optional time and another for necessity. This is the choice of Ibn Hazm, and the potentially intended meaning of the position of al-Shafi`i. It is also the position of Abu Sa`id al-Istakhry from the Shafi`is, Ibn `Uthaymin, and al-Albani.
- What is best in praying `isha'
It is preferred to delay `isha' prayer as long as it is not difficult for the people. This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, a position attributed to Malik, a position attributed to al-Shafi`i, the position of a group from the Salaf, and the majority of scholars. It is also the choice of Ibn Hazm, Ibn Taymiyyah, [314] Ibn Taymiyyah said: “Delaying `isha' until the third of the night is best, unless if people have congregated and it is difficult for them to wait, then praying before that is better.” Minhaj al-sunnah al-Nabawiyyah (310/8) al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
9. Prayer times in lands where the day and the night are in unconventional times
- Prayer times in lands where the day is very long or very short
If the day is very long or very short in some land, but there is a sunrise which noticeable separates the night and the day and a sunset which separates the day and night in twenty four hours, then its residents must perform the prayers at their known times. This is the position of Ibn Baz, and the decision of the Council of Senior Scholars and the Islamic Fiqh Council of the Muslim World League.
- Prayer in lands where the night and day persist
Prayers in land where the day or night persist for longer than twenty-four hours, they must pray the five wajib prayers within twenty-four hours by using the prayer times of the closest land where there is a distinction between night and day. This is the position of Ibn Baz, Ibn `Uthaymin, the decision of the Council of Senior Scholars and the Islamic Fiqh Council of the Muslim World League.
10. The portion of the prayer that means it has been prayed in its time
Scholars have differed over what portion of the prayer is necessarily performed within its time for the whole prayer to be considered in its time. This is according to two views:
The first is that the prayer is considered within its time if Takbirat al-Ihram [315] Saying “Allahu Akbar” to start the prayer, to be discussed in its section. is initiated within the time of the prayer, even if the rest of it is performed outside the time. This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, and a position among Shafi`is.
The second: is that a unit of prayer must be prayed within the time for the whole prayer to count within the time. This is the position of the Malikis, a position of al-Shafi`is chosen by al-Muzani, and a narration from Ahmad. It is also the choice of Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Shawkani, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
11. Making up the prayer if its time has ended
- The making up of the one who slept through it or forgot it
Whoever sleeps through a prayer or forgets it until its time ends, then it is an obligation upon him to pray it when he wakes up or remembers. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by Ibn Hazm and Ibn Taymiyyah.
- The making up of the prayer for the insane
There is no making up of prayers for the insane, regardless whether the time of insanity is short or long. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. It is also the choice of Ibn Hazm, and Ibn `Abd al-Barr consensus regarding the one with a permanent insanity.
- The making up of the prayer for the one who passed out
There is no making up prayers for the one who passes out, regardless whether his lack of consciousness is lengthy or short. This is the position of the Malikis, Shafi`is, and some of the Salaf. It is the choice of Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
 - The making up of the prayer for the drunkard
Whoever becomes drunk until the time for prayer exits, then it is wajib upon him to make it up. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn Qudamah, and Ibn Nujaym.
- Making up the prayer for the one under the influence of anaesthesia
Whoever was unconscious due to medicine or anaesthesia must make up his outdated prayer even if he was unconscious for a lengthy period of time. This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin, and the verdict of the Permanent Committee.
- The making up of the prayer for the one who left it deliberately until its time ended
Scholars have differed over the making up of a prayer of a person who deliberately left it until the end of its time, and this is according to two views:
The first: is that whoever deliberately leaves the prayer until its times ends must make it up, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
The second: is that there is no making up of the prayer [316] The magnitude of his sin with Allah is great. for such a person. This is the position of the Zahiris, the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Rajab, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
12. If a person remembers a past prayer in the time of another
Whoever missed a prayer but remembers it in the time of another begins with the missed prayer then prays the present one. This is the overall succinct position. [317] They differed in the ruling of order itself between that which has passed and is present, whether it is an obligation or a mustahabb act, and the number of passed prayers. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by al-Nawawi.
13. Ordering missed prayers
Ordering missed prayers is an obligation. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, [318] According to them, order is no longer an obligation when there is tightness of time and forgetfulness, or if passed prayers exceed a day of passed prayers, like if they were six prayers or more. Malikis, [319] Malikis have some details when it comes to clashes between the present and passed prayer but here’s fear of missing the present’s time. They have explicated this area thoroughly: if the passed prayers are a few – four or five according to them – then it is prioritised with order before the present prayer, but if it is more and he feared missing the present prayer he starts with that. Hanbalis, and a group if the Salaf.
14. Immediacy in making prayers up
Prayers that are missed must be made up immediately. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and a position among Shafi`is.
15. Whoever forgets a prayer but does not know which
Whoever forgets one, two, three, or four prayers out of the five but is unsure which, prays all five again. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
16. The disappearance of one of the barriers to prayer and a unit's worth being left
If a woman's menstruation ends, an insane person regains his sanity, an unconscious person regains consciousness, or a disbeliever accepted Islam, and there is still a unit's worth of time left in the prayer must pray that prayer on time. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by al-Nawawi and al-Shawkani.
17. Deputyship in prayer
There is no deputyship in prayer overall. [320] Excepted from this are the two units of circumambulation, and difference took place on prayer on behalf of the dead. Consensus has been quoted over this by: al-Tabari, Ibn al-`Arabi, Ibn al-Wazir, al-Qarafi, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and Ibn Rushd.
18. The repetition of the prayer of a person who reaches puberty during the time of a prayer after he has prayed it.
Scholars have differed over a person repeating his prayer after he reached puberty in the time of a prayer he has already performed, and there are two positions:
The first: is that repetition is not wajib. This is the correct position of the Shafi`is, a position in the school of Ahmad which Ibn Taymiyyah followed, and it is the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
The second: is that he must repeat, and this is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and a position among Shafi`is.
Fifthly: The Ruling of Facing the Qiblah in the Prayer
1. The ruling of facing the qiblah in prayer
Facing the qiblah is a condition for the validity of the prayer. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Rushd, and al-Nawawi.
2. Exactly facing the Ka`bah for who can see it
It is wajib to exactly face the Ka`bah for the person who can see it. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by: Ibn Hazm, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Qudamah, and Ibn Taymiyyah.
3. Facing the qiblah for the one in Mecca
It is a condition to face the Ka`bah exactly if one can see it. As for the one who cannot see it due to distance, or something blocking the way, then sufficient for him is the direction. This is the position of the Hanafis, a position among Dhafi`is, the choice of al-San`ani, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
4. Facing the qiblah for the one who is outside Mecca
Whoever is far from the Ka`bah then the obligation is to face the direction of the Ka`bah. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, a position among Shafi`is, and the position of Ibn Hazm.
5. Minimal divergence
There is no harm in minimal divergence from the exact direction of the Ka`bah. This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, and the position of Malik. It is the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn `Uthaymin, and the verdict of the Permanent Committee.
6. Deriving the qiblah
- Deriving the qiblah from the sun, moon, and the stars
It is permissible to derive the qiblah through the positions of the sun, moon, and the stars. Consensus has been quoted over this by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and al-Qurtubi.
- Deriving the qiblah from the wind [321] Hanbalis considered it difficult to use the wind except in the dessert, but between mountains and buildings, the wind circles so its effectives for guidance disappears.
It is permissible to use the wind to drive the qiblah. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- Deriving the qiblah through rivers
It is permissible to use large rivers, like the Nile, the Tigris, and the Euphrates, to derive the direction of the qiblah. This is explicitly mentioned by the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, and Hanbalis.
- Deriving the qiblah using modern apparatus
It is permissible to use modern technological apparatus to derive the qiblah. This is the position of Ibn `Abidin, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
- Deriving the qiblah through the trust-worthy’s testimony
Whoever is uncertain about the direction of the qiblah, and someone trustworthy told him of its position, then he must pray according to what he was told. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- Deriving the qiblah through the transgressor's testimony
The testimony of the transgressor in deciding the direction of qiblah is not accepted. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- Deriving the qiblah through the testimony of the disbeliever
The testimony of the disbeliever in deciding the direction of qiblah is not accepted. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- Deriving the qiblah through the mihrabs of the Muslims
The mihrabs of the Muslims especially must be used to derive the qiblah. There is no need for exercising logical discretion with it. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
7. Exercising rational discretion in deriving the qiblah
- The ruling of exercising rational discretion to find the qiblah.
If the one absent from that land of Mecca did not know the qiblah, they must exercise their rational discretion. [322] Ibn Qudamah said: “The mujtahid in the qiblah is the one aware of its proofs and evidences, even if ignorant of legal theory, since anyone who masters the evidences and proofs of a thing becomes a mujtahid, even if he is ignorant of others.”   This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- The ruling of congregational prayer for two with different qiblah views
If two people have different conclusions with regards to qiblah, they cannot pray together. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- Whoever changes his conclusion regarding the direction of the qiblah during prayer
Whoever changes his conclusion grading the direction of the qiblah during prayer actively and physically changes direction during the prayer to the new conclusion and finishes his prayer. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Ibn `Abd al-Barr's choice from Malikis.
 - Whoever doubts his conclusion during prayer
Whoever doubts his conclusion regarding qiblah during prayer such that there is no longer a direction he is certain of, he finishes his prayer without need for repetition. This has been explicitly mentioned by: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
- Realisation of a mistake in the qiblah direction after the prayer
Whoever prays outside Mecca to other than the qiblah out of exercising rational discretion, then realises after the prayer there is a mistake in direction, his prayer is sufficient for him. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, [323] He repeats at times that are considered mustahabb. Hanbalis, al-Shafi`is old position, and is narrated from some of the Salaf.
- Prayer towards other than the qiblah without exercising rational discretion.
Whoever prays towards other than the qiblah without prior exercise of rational discretion, then his prayer is not sufficient and he must repeat it. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn `Abd al-Barr and al-Nawawi.
8. Situations where facing the qiblah is not wajib
- Whoever is unable to deduce it
Whoever is unable to rationally discern the direction of the qiblah but is unable to have certainty in any direction should pray facing any direction. This is the relied upon position of the Malikis, the position of the Hanbalis, a position among Hanafis, and the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah.
- Whoever is physically unable to face it
Whoever is physically unable to face the qiblah prays based on his condition, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- During intense fear
Prayer facing other than the qiblah is permissible if a person is forced to leave it out of fear, and he prays to the best of his ability. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Battal, and al-Nawawi.
9. Prayer upon a ship, aeroplane, or a riding animal [324] Rahilah can refer to a caravan, or any means of transportation. Commonly used for ‘bus’ in modern-standard Arabic.
- Voluntary prayer on a riding animal whilst travelling
Prayer upon a riding animal is permissible during the actual travel, regardless of where it faces. Consensus has been quoted over this by: al-Tirmidhi, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Qudamah, al-Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyyah, al-`Ayni, and al-Shawkani.
- Wajib prayer upon a riding animal
Wajib prayer upon a riding animal is haram without a valid excuse. [325] They have differed in terms of what constitutes a valid excuse among themselves. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- Prayer upon a ship
Wajib prayer upon a ship is permissible. This is the general position. [326] There is a difference among scholars with regards to praying in a small boat, and, if it is a ship, if he is able to get off it to pray. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by: al-Nawawi, Ibn al-Mulaqqin, al-San`ani, and al-Shawkani.
- Prayer in an aeroplane
Prayer upon an aeroplane is permissible, whilst performing its pillars to the best of one's ability. He turns with it wherever it turns to face the qiblah. This is the choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
10. The ruling of prayer inside the Ka`bah or on top of it
- Prayer inside the Ka`bah
Prayer inside the Ka`bah is permissible, and this is the same for wajib and voluntary prayers. This is the position of the Hanafis, Shafi`is, a position of the Malikis, and a narration from the Hanbalis. It is also the choice of Ibn Hazm, approved by Ibn `Abd al-Barr, it is attributed to the majority of scholars, and it is the position of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
- Prayer on top of the Ka`bah
Prayer on top of the Ka`bah is valid.  This is the position of the Hanafis, [327] Hanafis said: it is makruh because of what it includes of leaving glorification. Shafi`is, [328] They specified as a condition that in front of him is a small barrier that is connected to it. a narration among Hanbalis, the position of Muhammad ibn al-Hakam among Malikis, and the position of the Zahiris. It is also the choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Sixthly: Covering the `Awrah
1. The ruling of covering the `awrah during prayer
Covering the `awrah is a condition for the validity of prayer. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, Zahiris, and a position among Malikis.
2. The boundaries of the man's `awrah
The `awrah of the man is between his naval and his knee. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence and it is the position of the majority of scholars.
3. The naval and the knees are not from the `awrah
The naval and the knees are not from the `awrah. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
4. Covering the shoulders for the man in prayer
Scholars have differed over of a man covering [329] Ibn Rajab quoted a consensus over the fact it is mustahabb for a man to cover his shoulders in prayer, and that it is best. his shoulders [330] `Atiq is where the clothing rests on the outer shoulder. It is masculine, but can be feminised. in prayer according to two views:
The first: is that it is mustahabb that the man places something on his shoulders to cover them in prayer. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, the majority of scholars, and a narration from Ahmad.
The second: is that it is a condition to cover the shoulders in prayer. This is the position of the Hanbalis, [331] For them, this is an obligation in the obligatory prayer, not the voluntary. Ibn Hazm, al-Shawkani, [332] It is a condition for him if the clothing is wide. and Ibn Baz.
5. The ruling of beautifying oneself with the best of clothes
It is mustahabb for a person to beautify themselves with their best clothes for prayer. This is explicitly mentioned by the Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is.
6. The boundaries of a woman's `awrah
It is wajib for the woman to cover her whole body other than her face and palms. [333] As for the feet, the majority – excluding the Hanafis essentially – view them as must be covered: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. This is the position of the Malikis, Shafi`is, a narration among Hanafis, a position among Hanbalis, and the position of the majority of scholars. It is also the choice of Ibn Hazm and Ibn Baz.
7. A woman's face veil in prayer
A woman does not wear her face veil during prayer without a need. Consensus has been quoted over this by Ibn `Abd al-Barr.
8. The boundaries of the `awrah of the free [334] Hanafis and Shafi`is have explicitly mentioned that the `awrah of the slave boy is like that of the slave girl. problematic [335] Khuntha: is whoever has both male and female reproductive organs, such that they are neither gender truly. Khuntha wadih is a clear hermaphrodite, who has either male or female feature more prominent. Khuntha mushkil is where neither male nor female features are apparent, or that he has neither female nor male reproductive organs, but a hole between his thighs from which to urinate that is neither a penis nor a female urethra. hermaphrodite
Scholars have differed over the `awrah of the free problematic hermaphrodite according to two views:
The first: is that his `awrah is like that of the free woman. This has been explicitly mentioned by the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, and a narration from Ahmad.
The second: is that his `awrah is like that of the man, and it is recommended like the free woman out of precautionary reasons. This is the position of the Hanbalis and the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah.
9. Prayer in haram clothing
- The prayer of a man wearing silk
It is haram for a man to wear silk clothing, whether in prayer or outside it, unless it is the only clothes available. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by al-Nawawi.
- Prayer in forcefully taken clothes
Prayer is haram in forcefully taken clothes. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence, and it is the choice of Ibn Hazm.
- The validity of prayer in forcefully taken clothes
Prayer in forcefully taken clothes is valid despite being haram. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, a narration from Ahmad, and the position of the majority of scholars.
10. The prayer of the naked
- The naked person if he finds no cover
If the naked person finds no cover, he prays whilst naked and does not need to repeat. This is the general position. [336] Some have excepted those who are not in a situation where they must be consistently naked so have made it wajib to repeat. Others said they repeat it in its time. Consensus has been quoted over this by al-Nawawi and Ibn Taymiyyah.
- The standing of the naked person if he is by himself
If the naked person is praying by himself, he prays standing. This is the position of the Malikis, [337] According to them, it is mustahabb to repeat in the time. Shafi`is, [338] Shafi`is said: they may pray individually or together. If they pray together and they can see, their Imam stands between them. If he stands in front, his prayer is valid. If it is dark or they cannot see each other then it is mustahabb they pray together and their Imam stands in front of them. a narration from Ahmad, a group from the Salaf, and the choice of Ibn Baz.
- The description of congregational prayer for the naked
A group of naked people pray in congregation in one line, and their imam stands between them in the middle. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, [339] Hanbalis said: if their Imam stands in front of them their prayer is invalidated, if they cannot see out of blindness or darkness then he may stand in front of them. and the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah.
- The standing of the naked in congregational prayer
If a group of naked people pray in congregational prayer, they pray standing. This is the position of the Malikis, Shafi`is, and a narration from Ahmad.


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