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Section I: Conditions for the Obligation of the Prayer

Firstly: Islam
IsIam is a condition for the prayer becoming an obligation. Ibn Rushd has quoted consensus on this matter.
Secondly: Puberty
1. Puberty as a Condition
Reaching puberty is a condition for the obligation of the prayer. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn Hazm, Ibn Rushd, and Ibn Taymiyyah.
2. Signs of Puberty
- Nocturnal emissions [287] Ihtilam is the term in Arabic, and it is to ejaculate in sleep due to a sexual dream or otherwise, taking the same rulings as ejaculating when awake or intercourse in terms of purification.
Normal emissions for both men and women are a sign of puberty. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Muhammad ibn Dawud al-Zahiri, Ibn al-Mundhir, and Ibn Qudamah.
- Pubic hair [288] Ibn Qudamah said regarding Inbat: “That thick rough hair grows around the male penis or the woman’s private part, which should be shaven with a blade. As for small hairs, then it takes no consideration.” Al-Mughni (345/4)
The appearance and growth of pubic hair is a sign of puberty. This is the position of the Malikis, Hanbalis, a narration from Abu Yusuf from the Hanafis, and the position of a group from the Salaf. It is also the choice of Ibn Hazm, al-Shawkani, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
- Reaching a particular age
The upper limit for reaching puberty is fifteen years, for both male and female. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan from the Hanafis, and the position of some of the Salaf. It is also the choice of al-San`ani, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
- Menstruation for the woman
If a girl menstruates, she has reached puberty and the obligations of reaching puberty apply to her. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by: Muhammad ibn Dawud al-Zahiri, Ibn al-Mundhir, and Ibn Qudamah.
- Pregnancy for the woman
Pregnancy for the woman is a sign of puberty, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [289] Pregnancy for Shafi`is is a sign of a girl’s puberty due to ejaculation before that, so puberty is estimated as before the date of childbirth by six months and a bit.
3. The age where the child [290] Ibn al-Manzur said: “Walad is a noun which includes one and many, male and female.” Lisan al-`Arab (467/3) is commanded to pray
If the boy reaches seven years, he is commanded to pray so that he may get used to it. If he reaches ten years then he may be disciplined by hitting if he is negligent with it. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence, and it is the position of a group of the Salaf.
Thirdly: Reason
Reason is one of the conditions of the prayer becoming an obligation. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by: Ibn Rushd, Ibn Hazm, and Ibn Taymiyyah.
Fourthly: Purification from Menstruation and Postnatal Bleeding
A condition for the prayer becoming wajib is purification from menstruation and postnatal bleeding. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Rushd, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Taymiyyah.


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