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Section III: Sunnah and Mustahabb Acts Related To Standing at `Arafah

Firstly: Bathing for Standing at `Arafah
It is mustahabb to bathe for standing at `Arafah. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Secondly: Travelling from Mina to `Arafah in the Morning and after Sunrise on the Day of `Arafah
It is sunnah to travel from Mina to `Arafah in the morning after sunrise on the Day of `Arafah. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Thirdly: The Sermon of `Arafah
1. The ruling of the sermon of `Arafah
It is sunnah for the imam to deliver a sermon on the Day of `Arafah at Namirah after the sun passes its zenith and before prayer. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


2. One or two sermons?
Scholars are of two positions regarding this:
The first position: The sermon of `Arafah consists of two sermons separated by the imam sitting briefly between them. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is.
The second position: The sermon of `Arafah consists of one sermon. This is the position of the Hanbali school. This is the chosen position of Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Fourthly: Combining two Prayers on the Day of `Arafah
1. The ruling of combining prayers on the Day of `Arafah
It is sunnah for pilgrims to combine zuhr and `asr early on the Day of `Arafah at the time of zuhr. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Rushd, al-Nawawi, Ibn Daqiq al-`Id, and Ibn Taymiyyah.


2. The reason for combining at `Arafah and Muzdalifah
Scholars are of three positions regarding the reason prayers are combined at `Arafah and Muzdalifah:
The first position: The reason for combining prayers at `Arafah and Muzdalifah is travel. Thus, those who did not travel a distance that permits shortening prayers, such as Meccans, may not combine prayers.      This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools and a group of the Salaf.
The second position: The reason for combining prayers at `Arafah and Muzdalifah is the rite of Hajj. Thus, it is permissible for every pilgrim to combine, even if they did not travel a distance that permits shortening prayers, such as Meccans. This is the position of the Hanafi and Maliki schools, one position amongst Shafi`is and Hanbalis, and the position of a group of the Salaf. This is the chosen position of al-Tabari, Ibn Qudamah, and Ibn Baz.
The third position: The reason for doing so is need and removing hardship. This is the position of Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan. This is the chosen position of Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn `Uthaymin.
3. The ruling of Meccans shortening prayers at `Arafah and Muzdalifah
Jurists are of two positions regarding Meccans shortening prayers at `Arafah and Muzdalifah:
The first position: Meccans do not shorten prayers. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is (according to the soundest), Hanbalis, the majority of the Salaf, and Dawud al-Zahiri.
The second position: Meccans shorten prayers. This is the position of the Maliki [1032] The rule according to them is that pilgrims shorten prayers even if they are Meccans. The exceptions are that residents of `Arafah do not shorten in `Arafah, residents of Muzdalifah do not shorten in Muzdalifah, and residents of Mina do not shorten in Mina. In these cases, they are at home. They mention that the reason for shortening prayers for others is only in order that one follow the Sunnah. Otherwise, this is not a distance that permits shortening for Meccans, people of Muzdalifah, etc. school, one position amongst Shafi`is, one narration from Ahmad, and the position of a group of the Salaf. This is the chosen position of Abu al-Khattab, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.


4. The ruling of combining and shortening prayers for one who prays alone
Whoever prays zuhr and `asr alone may combine and shorten them. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, as well as Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan – the two companions of Abu Hanifah. This is the chosen position of al-Tahawi.


5. How the adhan and iqamah are given for the two prayers
The prayer is offered with a single adhan and two iqamahs. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. This was also related from Malik [1033] Though the well-known position is that there are two adhans and two iqamahs. , and it is the position of a group of the Salaf.


6. Is the adhan before the sermon or after it?
The sunnah is for the adhan to be after the sermon. This is the apparent position of the Hanbali school, one position amongst Malikis, and was related from Abu Yusuf. This is the chosen position of al-Shawkani and Ibn `Uthaymin.


7. The ruling of reciting out loud or quietly during zuhr and `asr
It is sunnah to recite quietly during the zuhr and `asr prayers at `Arafah, even if they fall on a Friday. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and Ibn Rushd.
Fifthly: Making much Invocation, Supplication, and Talbiyah on the Day of `Arafah
It is mustahabb to perform much supplication, invocation, and talbiyah on the Day of `Arafah. [1034] Al-Nawawi says: “The sunnah is to perform much supplication, declaring the Oneness of Allah, talbiyah, seeking forgiveness, imploring, and reciting the Qur’an. These are the duties of this day. One should not fall short of the mark. This is the bulk of Hajj and its goal. In an authentic Hadith, the Prophet ﷺ said: “Hajj is `Arafah.” Thus, it is incumbent that one not falter regarding the being concerned about this nor regarding expending one’s full capacity in it.” (Al-Majmu`, 8/113) This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Sixthly: Marching [1035] Marching means departing and traversing quickly. to Muzdalifah after Sunset in a Tranquil and Dignified Manner
It is sunnah to march to Muzdalifah after sunset in a tranquil and dignified manner. If one finds a gap amidst the crowds, one speeds up. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Seventhly: Marching while Pronouncing Talbiyah and Mentioning Allah Mighty and Majestic
It is mustahabb to march out of `Arafah while pronouncing talbiyah and mentioning Allah the Exalted. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


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