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Section II: Conditions of Standing at `Arafah

Firstly: Standing in the Land of `Arafah
1. Standing in the land of `Arafah
It is a condition that one stand in the land of `Arafah, not somewhere else. All of `Arafah is valid to stand in. Consensus that standing at `Arafah is a rukn that Hajj is not valid without was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Rushd, al-Nawawi, and al-San`ani. Consensus that one may stand anywhere in `Arafah was related by al-Nawawi.
2. The boundaries of `Arafah
`Arafah has four boundaries:
· The northern boundary: Where Wadi Waseeq meets Wadi `Uranah at the foot of Jabal Sa`d.
· The western boundary: It is Wadi `Uranah. This western boundary continues from the point where Wadi `Uranah meets Wadi Waseeq until it runs parallel to Jabal Namirah. This stretch is five kilometres long. This valley acts as a divider between the Sacred Precinct and `Arafah, but is not part of either.
· The southern boundary: This is what lies between the southern hills of `Arafah and Wadi `Uranah.
· The eastern boundary: These arc-shaped range of hills on the plain of `Arafah, starting from the hilly pass that leads to the road to Ta’if. This range of hills extend until the reach Jabal Sa`d.
Markers have now been placed around the land of `Arafah to demarcate its boundaries. It is wajib upon the Hajji to pay attention to them lest he stand outside `Arafah and miss Hajj.
3. The ruling of standing in Wadi `Uranah
It is not valid to stand in Wadi `Uranah [1030] Wadi `Uranah is a valley facing `Arafah between the two hills that are at the boundary of the Sacred Precinct. , which is also called Masjid `Uranah, for it is outside of `Arafah. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


4. Is Namirah part of `Arafah? The ruling of standing there
Namirah [1031] Namirah is a known location close to `Arafah and outside the Sacred Precinct between the limits of both places. It bears the boundary markers of the Sacred Precinct. is not a part of `Arafah nor of the Sacred Precinct. It is only mustahabb to stand there after sunrise until the sun reaches its zenith, before standing at `Arafah. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


5. The ruling of standing at `Arafah unknowingly
If one stands at `Arafah while in a state of ihram during a time when standing at `Arafah is valid and while unaware that one is in `Arafah, this counts. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Secondly: Standing during the Appointed Time
1. Standing must be at the appointed time
It is a condition for the validity of standing at `Arafah that one stand there during the appointed time. Ibn Hazm related consensus on this.


2. The starting time for standing at `Arafah
Standing at `Arafah begins from the time the sun passes its zenith on the ninth of Dhu al-Hijjah. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, and one narration from Ahmad.


3. The ending time for standing at `Arafah
The time for standing at `Arafah ends at dawn on the day of Eid al-Adha. Whoever arrives at `Arafah after dawn on Eid al-Adha has missed Hajj. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and Ibn Qudamah.


4. How long must one stand at `Arafah for it to count?
Whoever stands for even a moment from the time the sun passes its zenith on the ninth until dawn on the tenth, whether standing, sitting, or riding, this suffices. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.


5. How long is it wajib to stand at `Arafah for those arriving during the day?
Anyone arriving at `Arafah during the day must remain until sunset. It is not permissible for one to leave before sunset. If one does so, then one’s standing counts, but one must expiate with blood. This is the position of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools, one position amongst Malikis and Shafi`is. This is the chosen position of Ibn al-`Arabi. Ibn `Abd al-Barr was partial to this position. This is the chosen position of Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin held this position in high regard.


6. The ruling of one who leaves before sunset on the ninth and returns before dawn on the tenth
Whoever leaves `Arafah before sunset on the ninth and returns before dawn on the tenth, then this suffices, and nothing is due of them. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and one position amongst Hanafis. This is the chosen position of al-Kamal ibn al-Humam.


7. The ruling of standing at `Arafah at night only
If one stands at `Arafah only during the night of the tenth of Dhu al-Hijjah, this suffices and nothing is due of them. However, one thereby misses out on the merit. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Qudamah, and al-Nawawi.


8. Mistakenly standing at the wrong time
Standing too early
If the mistake is in standing too early, such that everyone was mistaken and they stood on the eighth, the Day of Tarwiyah, then if it is possible for them to stand on the ninth, the original standing does not count. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis (according to the well-known position), and Shafi`is.
Standing too late
If the mistake is in standing too late, such that people were mistaken and stood on the Day of Eid al-Adha – and this mistake was made by everyone or the majority – then their Hajj is valid. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Al-Nawawi related agreement on this issue.
Thirdly: The Ruling of Standing at `Arafah without Ritual Purity
It suffices to stand at `Arafah without being in a state of ritual purity, and nothing is due in this case. However, it is mustahabb to be in a state of purity. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir and Ibn Qudamah.
Fourthly: Does Standing at `Arafah Require Covering One’s Nakedness and Facing the Qiblah?
It is not a condition that one cover one’s nakedness or face the qiblah when standing at `Arafah. Ibn Qudamah related consensus on this.
Fifthly: The Ruling of One who Sleeps for the Duration of their Stay at `Arafah
One who sleeps for the duration of their stay at `Arafah has not missed Hajj. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Sixthly: The Ruling of One who is Unconscious during their Stay at `Arafah
The stay of one who is unconscious throughout their time at `Arafah suffices. This is the position of the Hanafi and Maliki schools and one position amongst Shafi`is. This is the chosen position of al-Shinqiti and Ibn `Uthaymin.


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