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Section II: Upon Whom the Friday Prayer is Wajib The Ruling of the Friday Prayer after the Eid Prayer

Firstly: Upon Whom the Friday Prayer is Wajib
The Friday prayer is wajib upon men who are free, legally accountable, residents who have no excuse for missing it. [558] Ibn `Uthaymin says regarding those who work on Fridays: “If their attendance of the Friday prayer causes a major loss, then those who are directly responsible for the work needed are excused for missing the Friday prayer. They pray zuhr instead. However, this should be limited to the minimum number of employees who can accomplish what is required. They should take turns: this Friday for so-and-so and next Friday for so-and-so. As for if no loss will occur, but rather, one will miss out on profits, then it is wajib for them to attend the Friday prayer.” (Majmu` Rasa’il wa Fatawa al-`Uthaymin, 16/37) Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir and Ibn `Abd al-Barr.
Secondly: A Blind Man with a Guide
The Friday prayer is wajib upon a blind man with a guide. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. It is also the position of Hanafis such as Abu Yusuf and Muhammad, as well Dawud.
Thirdly: Praying Zuhr before the Friday Prayer is Over While Being Obliged to Offer the Friday Prayer
The zuhr prayer is invalid if offered before the Friday prayer by one who is obliged to offer the Friday prayer. One obliged to offer the Friday prayer must strive to catch it. If he catches it, all is well. If not, he prays zuhr. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Dawud.
Fourthly: The Ruling of the Friday Prayer for a Local Who Does not Hear its Call
The Friday prayer is wajib upon everyone in a locale, even one at its outer reaches who does not hear the call to it. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Rushd, Ibn Battal, Ibn Rajab, and Sanad, the Maliki.
Fifthly: The Ruling of the Friday Prayer for One Outside the Locale
The Friday prayer is wajib upon everyone who hears its call, even those outside city limits. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, [559] Hanbalis and Malikis limit the distance to a farsakh (approx. 5-6 km) because this is the distance from which one can typically hear the muezzin’s voice. Dawud, and a group of the Salaf.
Sixthly: Offering the Friday Prayer Behind Irreligious People and Innovators
The Friday prayer, and striving to attend it, is wajib whether the one leading it is a Sunni, an innovator, an upright man, or an irreligious man. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Qudamah, al-Nawawi, and al-Shawkani. Ibn Taymiyyah ascribed this position to the majority of the Salaf and Khalaf.
Seventhly: Those Not Obliged to Offer the Friday Prayer Women
Women are not required to offer the Friday prayer. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, al-Khattabi, Ibn Battal, and Ibn Qudamah. Slaves
Slaves are not required to offer the Friday prayer by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [560] They differ regarding its ruling if his master permits him to attend. Some hold that it is wajib while others say it is mustahabb. This is the position of most scholars. Children
Children are not required to offer the Friday prayer by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. This is the position of most scholars. Travellers
The ruling of the Friday prayer for travellers
The Friday prayer is not due from a traveller. [561] Some of the scholars hold that a traveller must attend Friday and congregational prayers if he is in a place in which they are established. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. It is the position of a group of the Salaf and most scholars.
Commencing travel after the sun reaches its zenith
It is not permissible to commence travels after the sun is at its zenith on Friday other than due to necessity. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Dawud al-Zahiri.
Commencing travel before the sun reaches its zenith
It is permissible to commence travel before the sun reaches its zenith. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, one position among Shafi`is, and most scholars.
A traveller leading the Friday prayer
It is permissible for a traveller to lead the Friday prayer. This is the position of the Hanafi and Shafi`i [562] However, they stipulate that in this case the imam must not be counted towards the required number of attendees, which is forty. schools. It was chosen by Ibn Hazm and Ibn `Uthaymin. It is also the poisiton given by the verdict of the Permanent Council.
Eighthly: Rulings Related to Those Not Obliged to Offer the Friday Prayer The obligation pertaining to one not required to offer the Friday prayer, and the ruling of them praying it
Those not obliged to offer the Friday prayer must pray zuhr. If they attend the Friday prayer and offer it, this suffices them. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Juwayni, Ibn Qudamah, and al-Nawawi. Can those who are not required to offer the Friday prayer pray zuhr before it?
Those not required to offer the Friday prayer – like travellers, women, slaves, and all others excused – may pray zuhr before the imam prays as long as the time for zuhr has entered. [563] The Council was asked: “What is the ruling of a woman offering the Friday prayer? Is it before or after the men’s prayer? Or with them?” It responded: “The Friday prayer is not wajib upon women. However, if she offers the Friday prayer with the imam, her prayer is valid. If she prays at home, she prays four units of zuhr, and this is done after the time has entered; i.e. after the sun passes its zenith.” (Fatawa al-Lajnah al-Da’imah – Al-Majmu`ah al-Ula, 8/212) This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence and is the position of most scholars. [564] Malikis distinguish between one who thinks that his reason for missing the prayer will pass and one who does not think that it will pass. In the first case, he is permitted to offer his prayer early, but only after the imam has finished the Friday prayer. In the second case, it is unconditionally recommended (mandub mutlaqan) that he offer his prayer early.
Ninthly: The Ruling of Offering the Friday Prayer for those Who Offered the Eid Prayer
Scholars are of two positions regarding one who offers the Eid prayer and whether the Friday prayer is no longer wajib if they occur on the same day:
The first position: The Friday prayer remains wajib. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, [565] However, Shafi`is hold that the Friday prayer is an obligation upon the city’s residents and its non-requirement from villagers who are reached by its call. and most jurists. It is the position of choice of Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, and Ibn `Abd al-Barr.
The second position: It is not wajib for those who attended the Eid prayer to attend the Friday prayer even though it is wajib upon the imam to perform it. This is the position of the Hanbali school and a group of the Salaf. It is the position of choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.


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