| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Honour

`Izzah linguistically: is the opposite of humiliation. Originally it is strength and might, dominance, highness, refrainment, fervor, and self-respect. It is said: `azza ya`azzu (he became honourable, he is exercising honour) to mean one is mighty and strong, ya`izzu if one strengthened and abstained, and ya`uzzu if one dominates and overpowers. [413] al-Sihah, al-Jawhari (3/885); Maqayis al-Lughah, Ibn Faris (4/38); Shams al-`Ulum, Nashwan al-Humayri (7/4310); Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (5/374,375); al-Tawqif `ala Muhimmat al-Ta`arif, al-Manawi (p. 241); Taj al-`Urus, al-Zabidi (15/219); Mu`jam al-Lughah al-`Arabiyyah al-Mu`asirah (2/1492).

`Izzah technically: is a state that prevents one from being dominated. It has also been said that it is refusal to carry humiliation, and rising above what entails defect. [414] Mu`jam Maqalid al-`Ulum, al-Suyuti (p. 203), Taj al-`Urus, al-Zabidi (15/219); al-Mu`jam al-Wasit (2/598). The Difference between Honour and Prestige (Sharaf)

Honour includes within it meanings of dominance and refrainment. Prestige is originally related to a place. This is where the statement ashrafa fulanun `ala al-shay’ comes from, meaning one has become on top of a thing. Shurfat al-qasr (the cusp of the palace) is also from this usage. It then got used to mean nobility of lineage, such that it is said to the Qurashi: sharif (prestigious). [415] Nadrat al-Na`im, a number of authors (6/2344). Commandments of Honour and Encouragement towards it in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “Whoever desires honour, then all honour lies with Allah alone.” Fatir: 10.
❖ Allah, exalted, also says: “To Allah belongs honour, and to His Messenger, and to the believers, but the hypocrites do not know.” al-Munafiqun: 8.
❖ Tamim al-Dari, Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘Indeed, this religion will reach everywhere the night and day can reach. Allah will not leave a dwelling in a city or a desert except that He will make this religion enter it, thus, honouring the honourable or humiliating the humiliated - an honour which Allah will bestow on Islam, and a humiliation which Allah will inflict on disbelief.’” [416] Reported by Ahmad (16958) and the wording is his, as well as al-Tabarani (2/58) (1280). al-Hakim authenticated it according to the conditions of the Two Sheikhs in al-Mustadrak (4/477). al-Haythami said in Majma` al-Zawa’id (6/17): “Its transmitters are those of the authentic narrations.” al-Albani said in Tahdhr al-Sajid (158): “It is according to the conditions of Muslim, and it has a supporting testifying evidence according to the conditions of Muslim also.” Tamim al-Dari used to say: “I saw this in members of my family: those of them who embraced Islam enjoyed goodness, honour, and a high standing; and the disbelievers among them were subject to humiliation, disgrace, and the payment of citizenship taxation (jizyah).”Quotes of Scholars on Honour

❖ Ibn al-Qayyim said: “Honour and highness are for the people of faith which Allah sent His Messengers with, revealed His Books to its accord, and it is knowledge, action, and a spiritual state… Allah, exalted, says: “To Allah belongs honour, and to His Messenger, and to the believers.” al-Munafiqun: 8, so one is as honourable as the faith he has and its reality. If he misses some share in honour and highness, it is due to his missing some share in faith - in knowledge and action, internally and externally.” [417] Ighathat al-Lahfan, Ibn al-Qayyim (2/181). Categories of Honour
Legislated honour. Unlegislated honour. Forms of Legislated Honour
Having honour in Allah, blessed and exalted. Having honour in being attributed to Islam, its guidance, and its law. Having honour in Allah’s Messenger ﷺ. Showing honour before the disbelievers, and being humble and gentle with the believers. Forms of Unlegislated Honour
Having honour in the disbelievers: Christians, Jews, hypocrites, and others. Having honour in one’s fathers and forefathers. Having honour in one’s tribe and clan. Having honour in abundance, whether it be wealth or physical number. Having honour in idols and deities. Reasons for Having Legislated Honour
Having certain belief and unwavering faith in that Allah, exalted, is The Honourable who cannot be overcome, and that He is the source of honour and its giver. Sincerely belonging to this religion, and being proud in one’s attribution to it, seeking honour from it. This, even during a period of weakness, and might for the enemies of Islam. Following the guidance of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, obeying his commands, adhering to his Sunnah. Based on all this does one gain honour in this life and be successful in the next. Having certitude that Allah has written for this religion to have dominion and highness in the earth, and that the state of the disbelievers and their honour will perish, as it is built upon a mirage of falsehood. Examples of Honour in the Companions Allah be Pleased with Them

❖ Tariq ibn Shihab narrates, saying: “`Umar ibn al-Khattab went to the Levant and Abu `Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah was with us. They approached a ford whilst `Umar was on his camel. He descended from it, took off his sandals and carried them on his shoulders, and took his camel’s reins and walked with it through the ford. Abu `Ubaydah said: “Commander of the Faithful, you are doing this?! You take off your sandals and carry them on your shoulder, take your camel’s reins, and walk through the ford? It does not sit well with me that this is how the townsmen greet you for the first time.” `Umar replied: “Really? If someone said this other than you, Abu `Ubaydah, I would have made an example of him for the Ummah of Muhammad ﷺ! We used to be the most humiliated of people, then Allah gave us honour through Islam. As soon as we seek honour in other than what Allah honoured us through, He will humiliate us.” [418] Reported by al-Hakim (207). al-Hakim authenticated it according to the conditions of the Two Sheikhs, and al-Dhahabi agreed to this, as well as al-Albani in Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Sahihah (1/118). Adages and Poetry about Honour

❖ If you wish for never-perishing honour, do not seek it in honour that perishes. Allah has ordained a matter before the creation of the heavens and the earth: none obey Him but He honours them, and none disobey Him but he humiliates them. [419] Fayd al-Qadir, al-Manawi (6/73).
❖ Death in a state of honour is better than death in humiliation. [420] Marzaban Namah (p. 120).
❖ al-Mutanabbi said:

“Live honourable or die whilst you’re noble
Among stabbing spears [421] Qana: is the plural of qanah, meaning spear. and falling flags.” [422] al-Wasaah bayn al-Mutanabbi wa Khusumih, al-Jurjani (1/351). Bunud: is the plural of band, which is a large flag. Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (3/97).

22 22