| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Justice

`Adl linguistically: is fairness in matters. It is the opposite of tyranny (jawr). [401] al-Sihah fi al-Lughah, al-Jawhari (5/1760); Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (11/430); al-Misbah al-Munir, al-Fayyumi (2/396).

`Adl technically: is using things in their place, at their appointed times, for their purpose, in their proper ways, without excess nor scarcity, nor advancement or delay. [402] Tahdhib al-Akhlaq, al-Jahiz (p. 28). The Difference between Justice, Equity (Qist), and Impartiality (Insaf) [403] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 80, 428).

Equity is clear, apparent justice. From this, a specific measure is referred to as qist, and also the balance is qist as it represents equity in weight until it is visually appreciated. Justice, however, may have hidden forms. Impartiality is being unbiased. Justice lies in a lack of bias, but can manifest outside of it. For example, when the thief is punished, it can be said that justice has been done to him, but not impartiality.The Impact of Justice and its Benefits
Justice is Allah’s balance on earth, through it the oppressed can be given their right from the oppressors. Whoever establishes justice gains Allah’s love. He says, exalted: “Be equitable, for Allah loves the equitable.” al-Hujurat: 9. Through justice, there is alignment between the ruler and whom he rules. Justice is the cornerstone of states and kingdoms. Through justice, security becomes the norm in the land. Justice causes tranquil hearts. Justice is a reason for non-Muslims to accept Islam. Commandments of Justice and Praise of Those who Uphold it in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “Indeed, Allah commands justice, beneficence, and courtesy to close relatives. He forbids indecency, wickedness, and oppression. He instructs you so perhaps you will be mindful.” al-Nahl: 90.
❖ He also says, most honourable: “Allah sets forth a parable of two men: one of them is dumb, incapable of anything. He is a burden on his master. Wherever he is sent, he brings no good. Can such a person be equal to the one who commands justice and is on the Straight Path?” al-Nahl: 76.
❖ `Ubadah ibn al-Samit, Allah be pleased with him, said: “We pledged to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ to hear and obey during our hardship and our ease, when we felt energetic and when we felt tired, that we would not contend with the orders of whomever are entrusted with a matter, that we would stand for justice wherever we may be, and that we would not fear the blame of any blamer for the sake of Allah.” [404] Reported by al-Nasa’i (4153) and Ahmad (15653). It is authenticated by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in al-Tamhid (23/272), Ibn al-`Arabi in `Aridat al-Ahwadhi (4/91), and al-Albani in Sahih Sunan al-Nasa’i (4153).
❖ `Abdullah ibn `Amr, Allah be pleased with them both said: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘For Allah, the equitable are on pulpits of light, by the right of the Lord of Mercy, honoured and majestic - both His Hands are right - those who are just in their rule, among their family, and what they are given responsibility over.’” [405] Reported by Muslim (1827). Justice is obligatory in all matters, but it is more stressed and emphasised for those entrusted with responsibility. If they are tyrannical, then anarchy takes place and hatred becomes rife towards them, since they were not just. [406] Sharh Riyad al-Salihin, Ibn `Uthaymin (3/641). Quotes of the Predecessors and Scholars on Justice

❖ `Umar ibn al-Khattab, Allah be pleased with him, said: “Allah has struck parables and has explained things to you in various ways so that the hearts may become alive. Surely, hearts are dead in their chests until Allah gives life to them. Whoever gains knowledge of a matter, let him benefit from it. Justice has signs and glad-tidings. As for its signs: bashfulness, generosity, and humble lenience. As for its glad-tiding: it is mercy. Allah has made for each matter a door, and for each door a key. The door of justice is learning, and its key is asceticism. Learning is remembering death and preparing for it with action.” [407] Reported by al-Tabari in Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk (3/485), and Ibn Kathir in al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (7/43).
❖ Ibn Hazm, Allah have mercy upon him, said: “The most favourable of Allah’s blessings on a person is that he instills within him justice and love for it, and truth and preferring it.” [408] al-Akhlaq wa al-Siyar, Ibn Hazm (p. 90).
❖ Ibn Taymiyyah, Allah have mercy upon him, said: “Justice is the system of everything. If the matters of the worldly life are established by justice, then they are set right, even if its establisher has no share in the next life. If they are not established by justice, they are not set right even if he who established them has a share in the next life due to faith.” [409] Majmu` al-Fatawa (28/146). Categories of Justice

Justice is of two kinds:
Unconditional justice: which the intellect sees the goodness of. It cannot be abrogated during any time period, and can never be referred to as transgression. For example: being good to he who is good to you, and preventing harm from he who prevented it from your path. Then there is justice which is only recognised through the Law, and it can be abrogated during some time period, like legal retribution and blood money. [410] al-Mufradat, al-Raghib (p. 552). Forms of Justice
The justice of the guardian, whether his guardianship is general or specific. Justice with one’s spouse, or fairness among spouses. Fairness with children in gifts and presents. Fair speech. Fairness in measuring and balance. Justice with non-Muslims. Allah, exalted, says: “Believers, stand firm for Allah and bear true testimony. Do not let the hatred of a people lead you to injustice. Be just! That is closer to piety. Be mindful of Allah. Surely, Allah is All-Aware of what you do.” al-Ma’idah: 8 Examples of Justice from the Life of the Prophet ﷺ and Companions Allah be Pleased with Them

❖ `A’ishah, Allah be pleased with her, said: “The Quraysh worried about the lady who had committed theft at the time of the Prophet ﷺ. They asked: ‘Who will speak to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ about her case?’ They then said: ‘No one dares to do so except Usamah ibn Zayd, the beloved of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ.’ She was brought to the Prophet ﷺ, and so Usamah spoke to him about her. The face of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ changed in colour, and he said: ‘Do you intercede when it is a matter of Allah’s prescribed punishments?!’ Usamah said: ‘Seek forgiveness for me, Messenger of Allah.’ When it was night, Allah’s Messenger ﷺ got up and delivered a sermon, praising Allah and exalting him then saying: ‘What destroyed the nations preceding you was that if a noble amongst them stole, they would forgive him, and if a poor person amongst them stole, they would inflict the legal punishment on him. By the One in Whose Hands is my soul, if Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad stole, I would cut off her hand.’ He then commanded that the woman who stole have her hand cut off." [411] Reported by al-Bukhari (3475) and Muslim (1688). Justice in Poetry

al-Zahawi said:

“Justice is like rain, its water gives life to the earth,
While tyranny in kingship is like setting fire to reed.” [412] Majma` al-Hikam wa al-Amthal fi al-Shi`r al-`Arabi, Ahmad Qabish (p. 327).

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