Overall Meaning: Meaning of patience:
Sabr linguistically: It is withholding the self from it being incapable to resist. So-and-so sabara (was patient) during such calamity, yasbiru sabran (he is patient, showing patience). [365] al-Sihah, al-Jawhari (2/706).
Sabr technically: It is a virtuous moral through which one withholds from doing what is ignoble and unbeautiful. It is a spiritual strength that rectifies the affairs of the self and makes it upright. [366] `Uddat al-Sabirin, Ibn al-Qayyim (p. 34).

Difference between patience, perseverance (tasabbur), resilience (istibar), endurance (musabarah), and toughness (ihtimal):
If one withholds oneself and prevents it from answering the call to that which is immoral, and this as a matter of will, then this is referred to as patience. If this is through excessive training and exaggerated practise, it is referred to as perseverance. It is the morphological form ifti`al of sabr, implying iktisab - acquisition. Tasabbur is the initial state to reach istibar, just as takassub is to iktisab. Perseverance is maintained until it transforms into resilience. As for endurance, then it is vying for patience with another. It is of the morphological form mufa`alah which necessitates its taking place between two, as is the case with mushatamah (cursing one another) and mudarabah (striking one another). The difference between toughness and patience is that being tough over a matter is to exercise restraint of one’s rage in bearing it. On the other hand, patience over difficulty is withholding the self from engaging with it in word or action. Being patient away from a thing is withholding the self from doing it.

Commandments of patience and encouragement towards it in the Qur’an and Sunnah:
❖ Allah, exalted, says, “You who believe, be steadfast, more steadfast than others; be ready; always be mindful of Allah, so that you may prosper.” (Al `Imran: 200)
❖ He, exalted, also says, “Indeed, the patient will be given their reward without account.” (al-Zumar: 10)
❖ Abu Sa`id al-Khudri, Allah be pleased with him, narrates, “Some of the Supporters asked Allah’s Messenger ﷺ to give them, and he did. They again asked him and he again gave them. Then again they asked him and he gave them until all that was with him finished. He then said, ‘If I had any good, I would not withhold it from you. Whoever abstains from asking others, Allah will make him content. Whoever seeks self-sufficiency, Allah will make him self-sufficient. Whoever keeps to patience, Allah will make him patient. Nobody can be given a blessing better and more expansive than patience.’” [367] Reported by al-Bukhari (1469) and this is his wording, as well as Muslim (1053).
❖ Suhayb, Allah be pleased with him, said, “Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said, ‘Wondrous is the state of the believer. All his affairs are good for him. This is for no one but the believer. If he receives that which pleases him, he is thankful, and this is better for him. If he is afflicted with difficulty, he is patient, and this is better for him.’” [368] Reported by Muslim (2999).

Quotes of the predecessors and scholars on patience:
❖ `Umar, Allah be pleased with him, said, “The best of our lives we experienced when we had patience. Had patience been a man, it would be magnanimous.” [369] Reported by Ibn Abi al-Dunya in al-Sabr wa al-Thawab `Alayh (6).
❖ `Ali ibn Abi Talib, Allah be pleased with him, said, “Patience is to faith what the head is to the body. If it is cut off, the body perishes.” He then raised his voice and said, “There is no faith for one who has no patience!” [370] Reported by Ibn Abi al-Dunya in al-Sabr wa al-Thawab `Alayh (8).

Benefits of patience:
1- It is a sign of complete faith and sound Islam.
2- It bears the fruits of Allah’s and the people’s love.
3- A cause for empowerment in the land.
4- Admittance into the Garden and salvation from the Fire.
5- It is a manifestation of true manhood, and a sign of a noble end.

Levels of patience:
There are four levels to patience:
The first: It is perfect patience. It is the station of those of great resolve - to be patient through Allah, for Allah. 
The second: It is the one who is neither patient for Allah’s sake nor does he seek patience through Him, and this is the worst of stations and its most reviled. Such a person is deserving of being let down and being cut off from all good. 
The third: It is a patience wherein there is patience through Allah, seeking His aid, relying upon His might and strength. However, his patience is not for the sake of Allah, since he is not patient in order to reach what Allah wishes for him in religious matters. Such a person gains what he sought and enjoys it, but he will receive no noble end, or it may even be a disgraceful one. This is the station of the guardians of unbelief and the lords of satanic dealings - their patience is through Allah, but not for His sake nor in His cause. 
The fourth: It is for those who are patient for the sake of Allah but are weak in their patience through Him, reliance upon Him, and trust in Him. For such a person is a praiseworthy end, but he is weak and incapable, letting himself down in much of his asking. He has little share of “It is You we worship; it is You we ask for help.” (al-Fatihah: 5) His share from Allah is greater than his share through Him - this is the state of the weak believer. [371] Madarij al-Salikin, Ibn al-Qayyim (2/450).

Barriers to adornment with patience:
1- Hastiness. 
2- Anger. 
3- Intense distress and sadness due to what one’s enemies plot against one. 
4- Despair. 

Means to acquiring patience:
1- That one reflects over the meanings of the Qur’an and contemplates them. 
2- That he seeks Allah’s aid in his calamities, knowing that whatever afflicts him is ordained by Him. 
3- Avoiding giving up, knowing it does not benefit, rather increases his turmoil. 
4- Having certitude that the blessings of this life are perishing and will never last. He therefore is not overjoyed at their reception, nor aggrieved at their departure. 

Examples of the patience of the Prophets exaltations and peace of Allah be upon them, companions, predecessors, and scholars:
❖ `A’ishah, Allah be pleased with her, the wife of the Prophet ﷺ, asked him, “Did you encounter a day more intense upon you than Uhud?” The Prophet ﷺ replied, “Your people have truly troubled me, and the worst I received from them was on the day of `Aqabah, when I presented myself to Ibn `Abd Yalil ibn `Abd Kulal, but he did not acquiesce to my request. So I departed, overwhelmed with sorrow, and proceeded on until I found myself at Qarn al-Tha`alib. I lifted my head towards the sky to see a cloud shading me unexpectedly. I looked up and saw Jibril in it. He called me saying, ‘Allah has heard your people’s words to you, and how they responded to you. Allah has sent to you the Angel of the Mountains so that you may command him to do whatever you wish to these people.’ The Angel of the Mountains called and greeted me, and then said, ‘Muhammad, your Lord has heard your people’s words to you, and how they responded to you. Command what you wish. If you like, I will fold al-Akhshabayn over them.’” The Prophet ﷺ replied, “Rather, I hope that Allah will let them beget children who will worship Allah alone, associating none with Him.” [372] Reported by al-Bukhari (3231) and this is his wording, as well as Muslim (1795).
❖ The family of Yasir, Allah be pleased with them - `Ammar, his father Yasir, and his mother Sumayyah - were patient over the punishment that they received at the hands of the polytheists, due to their faith. Abu Ishaq said, “`Ammar ibn Yasir, his father, and his mother, were a household of Islam. Banu Makhzum would torture them. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, ‘Be patient, family of Yasir; for your appointment is at the Garden.’” [373] Reported by al-Hakim (5646) and the wording is his, as well as al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (1515).
❖ “Imam Ahmad was taken to al-Ma’mun in the lands of the Byzantines during the trial of the creation of the Qur’an. Muhammad ibn Nuh was also taken with him, both of them tied up. al-Ma’mun died before he met them. They were returned in their chains. Muhamad ibn Nuh died on the way, and Ahmad was returned to Baghdad in chains. Some of the memorisers among the Hadith Folk came to Imam Ahmad in Raqqah where he was imprisoned. They kept reminding him of what is narrated of reports to do with calculated deception. Imam Ahmad said, ‘What do you then say of the narration of Khabbab: “From those who came before you were those who would be sawed in half, yet this did not deter them from their religion.” [374] Reported by al-Bukhari (3612) with a minor difference from the narration of Khabbab ibn al-Aratt, Allah be pleased with him. ?!’ They despaired of him after that.”

Patience in poetry:
❖ The poet said,
“Patience is the best thing to seek aid from
Over the passing of time, if harm afflicts you.” [375] Rawdat al-`Uqala’, Ibn Hibban (p. 161).
❖ Another said,
“I have seen - and days are full of experience -
For patience a conclusion with praiseworthy ends.
It is rare for one to seriously try for a thing,
Accompanied by patience, but that he gains it.” [376] The previous source.