| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Chivalry

Shahamah linguistically: the root sh-h-m indicates intelligence. It is said: rajulun shahm (a chivalrous man), referring to the smart, aware, and intelligent man. It is also said: al-shahm is the one who is bearing, well-disposed to doing so. He is not seen except that he is bearing whatever he is carrying with a sound, content heart. [359] Kitab al-`Ayn, al-Khalil (3/405); al-Zahir fi Ma`ani Kalimat al-Nas, Abu Bakr al-Anbari (1/114); Mu`jam Diwan al-Adab, al-Farabi (2/277); Maqayis al-Lughah, Ibn Faris (3/223); al-Muhkam, Ibn Sidah (4/196); Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (12/328).

Shahamah technically: is having a sense of honour and the ability to directly encounter awesome events, expecting to be well-mentioned for it. [360] Tahdhib al-Akhlaq, Ibn Miskwayh (p. 30); al-Mu`jam al-Wasit (p. 498). Commandments of Chivalry and Encouragement towards it in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “When he arrived at Midian’s waters, he found a group of men watering their flocks, and beside them two women keeping their flocks back, so he said, ‘What is the matter with you two?’ They said, ‘We cannot water our flocks until the shepherds take their sheep away: our father is a very old man.’ He watered their flocks for them, withdrew into the shade, and prayed, ‘My Lord, I am in dire need of whatever good thing You may send me.’ al-Qasas: 23, 24. Musa was moved, and the means of chivalry and manhood arose within him, so he tossed his bucket along with the other men’s and watered their flocks for them. [361] al-Tafsir al-Wadih, al-Hijazi MUhammad Mahmud (2/825).
❖ `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, Allah be pleased with him, said: “When the Prophet ﷺ saw the refusal of the people to accept Islam he said: ‘Allah, send seven years like those of Yusuf!’ So famine overtook them for one year and destroyed every kind of life to such an extent that the people started eating hides, carcasses, and rotten dead animals. Whenever one of them looked towards the sky, he would see smoke because of hunger. Abu Sufyan went to the Prophet ﷺ and said: ‘Muhammad, you command people to obey Allah and to keep good relations with kith and kin. No doubt the people of your tribe are dying, so supplicate to Allah for them.’” [362] Reported by al-Bukhari (1007) and the wording is his, as well as Muslim (2798). The Prophet ﷺ did not deny Abu Sufyan his request when he came to him due to his sound morals and chivalry, and his wishing for them to be guided.Benefits of Chivalry
It is one of the virtuous morals, a feature of great men. It allows for the spread of love among people, doing away with animosity. There is preservation of honour in adhering to it, and spreading security in society. It is a sign of having high aspirations and a dignified soul. Barriers to Acquiring Chivalry
Having a harsh heart. Selfishness and letting down the Muslims, being indifferent to their suffering. Cowardice and miserliness. Humiliation, abasement, and weakness of spirit. Malice, hostility, and hate. Men wearing silk. Committing obscenity, and men mixing with women. Means to Acquiring Chivalry
Patience and courage. Having high aspirations and a dignified soul. Justice and fairness. Mixing with those of chivalry and deliverance. Faith in divine destiny and decree. Examples of Chivalry from the Life of the Prophet ﷺ and Companions

❖ The Prophet ﷺ had the greatest share of chivalry among people. He ﷺ was “the best of people, the most generous of people, and the most courageous of people. The people of Madinah were stunned by a sound on some night. People went towards the sound, only to see the Prophet ﷺ returning therefrom, having beaten them to it, saying ‘Don’t be afraid, don’t be afraid.’ He was riding a steed that belonged to Abu Talhah bare without a saddle, carrying his sword around his neck. He said: ‘It rides like the sea.’ - meaning the steed.’” [363] Reported by al-Bukhari (3040) and this is his wording, as well as Muslim (2307).
❖ `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf narrates: “While I was fighting in the front line on the day of Badr, suddenly I looked behind and saw to my right and left two young men and somewhat did not feel safe standing between them. Then one of them asked me secretly so that his companion may not hear: ‘Uncle, show me Abu Jahl." I said: ‘Nephew, what are you to do with him?’ He said: ‘I promised Allah that if I see him, I will either kill him or be killed before him.’ Then the other said the same to me secretly so that his companion should not hear. I would not have been pleased to be in between two other men instead of them. Then I pointed him out to them. Both of them attacked him like two hawks till they knocked him down. Those two boys were the sons of `Afra’.” He likened them to hawks as it is a known figurative usage for courage, chivalry, and attacking prey. Once a hawk has a hold of a thing, it does not depart it until it takes it. [364] Fath al-Bari, Ibn Hajar (7/308).

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