| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Sacrifice

Tadhiyah linguistically: is the verbal noun of dahha. It is said: “Dahha bi-nafsihi aw bi-`amalihi aw bi-malihi (He sacrificed himself, his work, or his wealth): if one expends it and gives it without return. It is novel in this meaning. [106] al-Mu`jam al-Wasit (1/535); al-Mu`jam al-Wajiz (p. 377).

Tadhiyah technically: is expending the self, time, or wealth for a higher cause and a more desired purpose, all the while hoping for reward from Allah, honoured and majestic. A synonym of it is fida’. From its meanings are expansion and struggle.Commandments of Sacrifice and Encouragement towards it in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “For Him to choose martyrs from among you.” Al `Imran: 140. al-Qasami said: “Meaning, so that He may honour from among you some with martyrdom, so that they are an example for others in sacrificing the self for the sake of truth, dying for its cause, elevating its status.” [107] Tafsir al-Qasimi (2/419).
❖ Allah exalted says: “Do not think of those who have been killed in Allah’s way as dead. They are alive with their Lord, well provided for.” Al `Imran: 169. Expending oneself and martyrdom for the sake of Allah is the epitome of sacrifice.
❖ Abu Hurayrah, Allah be pleased with him, narrates that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “The best life is that of the man who holds his horse’s rein in Allah's way and flies on its back to the places whence he hears a cry of war or the clatter of arms, seeking martyrdom or slaughter on the battlefield; or that of a person who goes to stay on the top of the hill or in a valley, and there he performs the prayer, pays the purificatory charity, and worships his Lord till death overtakes him. He has no concern with the affairs of anyone except the doing of good.” [108] Reported by Muslim (1889). Categories of Sacrifice
Praiseworthy (Legislated) Sacrifice: Sacrificing the self for the sake of Allah. Sacrificing one’s wealth in all good outlets that are legally encouraged. Blameworthy (Unlegislated) Sacrifice: Sacrificing for ignorant causes, dying for tribalistic purposes, for other than Allah’s sake. Benefits of Sacrifice
Helping the cause of the religion. Realising cooperation between the different classes of society, the strong and the weak. Strengthening the Ummah and realising its unity, such that its enemies fear it, and it becomes powerful and honourable. Realising mercy between the fabric of all Muslim society. Realising honour. Realising happiness. Among the Forms of Sacrifice
Sacrificing the self. It is the highest level of sacrifice. Sacrificing wealth. Sacrificing time for the sake of acquiring knowledge. Sacrificing by utilising one’s body. Barriers to Acquiring Sacrifice
Being insincere to Allah in deeds. Love of the self and preferring it over others. Being far from Allah, and being weak in worship and seeking proximity to Him. Immersion in fun, affluence, and comfort. Having bad expectations of others and lack of trust. Weak faith, and magnifying the provision which one would lose out on if one sacrificed it. Also, fearing death which makes one desist from fighting and sacrificing one’s life. Means to Acquiring Sacrifice
Not running after the worldly life. Ridding oneself of a defeatist attitude. Love of others. Adorning oneself with bravery and courage. Adorning oneself with high aspirations. Adorning oneself with generosity and not being stingy. Accompanying good people with high character, those who sacrifice themselves and their wealth for the sake of Allah. Absolute certainty in what Allah has prepared for His slaves who struggle in His path. Reading reports of the Righteous Predecessors and their sacrificing their lives and wealth, so that one is inspired by their lives. Examples of Sacrifice from the Life of the Prophet ﷺ and Companions

❖ The Prophet ﷺ used to be the best of people, the most generous of people, and the most courageous of people. The people of Madinah were stunned by a sound on some night. People went towards the sound, only to see the Prophet ﷺ returning therefrom, having beaten them to it. He was riding a steed that belonged to Abu Talhah unsaddled, with the sword around his neck. He said: “Do not be stunned.” [109] Reported by al-Bukhari (2908) and Muslim (2307), and this is his wording. Meaning there is nothing to be worried about, so be calm.
❖ Anas ibn Malik, Allah be pleased with him, said: “Abu Talhah was the wealthiest among the Supporters in terms of palm trees in Madinah, and what he loved most among his possessions was his garden known as Bairuha’ which was opposite the mosque. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ often visited it and drank from its fresh water. When the verse was revealed: “You will not attain righteousness until you spend of that which you love,” Al `Imran: 92, Abu Talhah came to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and said: “Allah says in His Book: “You will not attain righteousness until you spend of that which you love,” and the dearest of my property is Bairuha’, so I have given it as charity for Allah’s sake, and I anticipate its reward with Him; so spend it, Messenger of Allah, as Allah guides you.” The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Well! That is surely a profitable transaction. I have heard what you said, and I think you should spend it on your nearest relatives.” So, Abu Talhah distributed it among nearest relatives and cousins.” [110] Reported by al-Bukhari (1461), and this is his wording, and Muslim (998). Adages, Quotes, and Poetry in Sacrifice

❖ Ibn al-Muqaffa` said: “Expend for your friend, your blood and wealth; and for your knowledge, your giving [111] al-Rifd: is giving and gifting. See: Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (3/181). and your constant presence; and for the masses, your pleasantness and greeting; and for your enemy your justice. Be stingy with your religion and honour from everyone.” [112] al-Adab al-Saghir wa al-Adab al-Kabir, Ibn al-Muqaffa` (p. 98); See also: `uyun al-Akhbar, Ibn Qutaybah (3/20).
❖ It was said to `Abdullah ibn Ja`far: “Why do you give a lot if you are asked, but give little leeway in commerce and business?” He replied: “I expend my wealth, but I am stingy with my intellect.” [113] al-Kamil fi al-Lughah wa al-Adab, al-Mubarrad (2/124).
❖ Muslim ibn al-Walid:

            “He expends his life if the stingy one withholds it -
            Being generous in giving one’s life is its epitome.” [114] Nishwar al-Muhadarah, al-Tanukhi (7/20).

22 22