| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Deliberation

Ta’anni linguistically: anah and ana is forbearance and dignity. Aniya, ta’anna, ista’na is to confirm and ensure a thing. Rajulun anin (a deliberate man), taking the semantic form of fa`il, meaning incredibly composed and forbearing. [87] al-Sihah, al-Jawhari (6/2274); Maqayis al-Lughah, Ibn Faris (1/142).

Ta’anni technically: is confirming matters and leaving hastiness. [88] Sharh Sahih Muslim, al-Nawawi (1/189). It is also said that it is being extremely gentle in matters and deliberate in them. [89] al-Muhkam, Ibn Sidah (3/364); Mukhtar al-Sihah, al-Razi (1/24, 80); Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (12/146), (14/48); al-Libab fi `Ulum al-Kitab, Ibn `Adil (3/96); al-Qamus al-Muhit, al-Fayruzabadi (1/1096). The Difference between Deliberation and Some Other Characteristics [90] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 204).

● The Difference between Deliberation and Carefulness (Ta’udah)

Deliberation is having extreme gentleness in matters and thoughtful in their causes. Carefulness is leaving off swiftness and lightness in the execution of matters.

● The Difference between Deliberation and Forbearance (Hilm)

It is said that deliberation and forbearance offer the same meaning. It is also said that deliberation is being considerate in planning matters, and not being hasty, while forbearance is delaying a deserved punishment from one who is deserving.Commandments of Deliberation and Encouragement towards it in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “Believers, when you struggle in the cause of Allah, be sure of who you fight. Do not say to those who offer you greetings of peace, ‘You are no believer,’ seeking a fleeting worldly gain. Instead, Allah has infinite bounties. You were initially like them then Allah blessed you with Islam. So be sure! Indeed, Allah is All-Aware of what you do.” al-Nisa’: 94. What is meant by being sure is deliberation and not being hasty, seeking clarity of what is taking place or what news is related until matters are clear. [91] Fath al-Qadir, al-Shawkani (5/71).
❖ He, exalted, also says: “He is the One Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days, then established Himself on the Throne.” al-Hadid: 4. From the wisdom of creating the heavens and earth in six days is that Allah taught His slaves deliberation and carefulness, and that what is most important is perfecting a matter as opposed to getting it over and done with. Man should take care of that which he crafts. Allah, therefore, taught mankind to be deliberate in that they have ability to accomplish. [92] Tafsir al-Hujurat - al-Hadid, Ibn `Uthaymin (1/362).
❖ Ibn `Abbas, Allah be pleased with them both, narrates that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said to al-Ashajj Ashajj `Abd al-Qays: “You have two characteristics which Allah loves: forbearance and deliberation.” [93] Reported by Muslim (17).
❖ Anas ibn Malik, Allah be pleased with him, narrates from the Prophet ﷺ that he said: “Deliberation is from Allah, and hastiness is from Satan.” [94] Reported by Abu Ya`la (4256) and al-Bayhaqi (20270). al-Mundhari said in al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib (2/359) and al-Haythami in Mujma` al-Zawa’id (8/22): “Its narrators are those of the authentic narrations.” Ibn al-Qayyim approved its chain in A`lam al-Muwaqqi`in (2/120).
Quotes from the Predecessors and Scholars on Deliberation

❖ `Amr ibn al-`As wrote to Mu`awiyah, rebuking him for his extra carefulness. Mu`awiyah wrote back saying: “To proceed: further understanding of reports is abundance and guidance. The guided one is the one who is guided away from hastiness, and the loser the one who loses out on deliberation. He who makes sure of things is right, or soon-to-be right. The hasty is wrong, or soon-to-be wrong.” [95] Reported by al-Lalika’i in Sharh Usul al-I`tiqad (2789).
❖ Malik said: “It used to be said: ‘Deliberation is from Allah, and hastiness is from Satan. A person is not hasty and is right and another deliberate but errs except that the deliberate one is still more accurate in his view. A person is not hasty so errs and another deliberate but errs except that the deliberate one’s error is lighter.’” [96] Reported by al-Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal ila al-Sunan al-Kubra (817).
❖ Abu `Uthman ibn al-Haddad said: “Whoever is deliberate and considerate receives more sound insight than that which a spontaneous person may receive.” [97] Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm wa Fadlih, Ibn `Abd al-Barr. Benefits of Deliberation
It is a sign of intellect, dignity, and a tranquil heart. It prevents man from going astray and erring. All of deliberation is good, resulting in praiseworthy ends in this life and the next. It is a reason for attaining the love of Allah and His pleasure. It protects man from the plots of Satan and his overcoming him. Among the Forms of Deliberation

❖ When traversing towards prayer. The Prophet ﷺ said: “When you are going to pray, then adhere to tranquility. Whatever you reach, pray it; whatever passes you, complete it.” [98] Reported by al-Bukhari (635).
❖ When reciting Qur’an. The Prophet ﷺ used to move his tongue when revelation would descend upon him, ensuring he memorises it. Due to this, Allah revealed: “Do not rush your tongue trying to memorise the Qur'an.” al-Qiyamah: 16. [99] Reported by al-Bukhari (4927).
❖ Deliberation in seeking knowledge. The student of knowledge ought to be patient with his teacher until he finishes what he is teaching. [100] al-Tibyan fi Aqsam al-Qur’an, Ibn al-Qayyim (1/159).
❖ Deliberation when facing the enemy in battle. If he didn’t fight during the beginning of the day, the Prophet ﷺ would wait until the wind would blow and after the prayer. [101] Reported by al-Bukhari (3160).
❖ Deliberation before rebuking matters that may carry an explanation. This is understood from the story of al-Khidr with Musa, peace be upon him. A benefit from it is to deliberate and consider every possibility before rebuking a matter. [102] See: Fath al-Bari, Ibn al-Hajar (1/222). Reasons for Losing Deliberation
Intense anger or sadness. Being hasty to achieve results. Carelessness. If one is careless in accomplishing a matter, he would go about doing it in a hasty manner and thence receive negative results. Succumbing to desires. Not consulting experts in matters one is ignorant of. Means for Acquiring Deliberation
Supplication Considering the consequences of hastiness. Knowing the Names of Allah and His Attributes. From His Names, exalted, are The Forbearing and The Gentle. Among their meanings is deliberation and moderation in matters, and not being hasty in punishing the oppressors. Reading the biography of the Prophet ﷺ, for one learns deliberation and patience upon harm therefrom. Consulting the righteous and those of expertise. Examples of Deliberation from the Lives of the Prophets and Companions

❖ The prophet of Allah, Yusuf, peace be upon him, was deliberate in his leaving prison, ensuring that his innocence and chastity were established and made clear for the king and his council. He held back from swiftly leaving prison and was not hasty in exiting. Allah, exalted, says: “The king said, ‘Bring him to me,’ but when the messenger came to fetch Yusuf, he said: ‘Go back to your master and ask him about what happened to those women who cut their hands - my Lord knows all about their conspiracy.’” Yusuf: 50.
❖ Ibn `Abbas, Allah be pleased with them both, said: “When Abu Dharr heard of the advent of the Prophet ﷺ to Makkah, he said: ‘Brother, ride in this valley and bring information for me about the person who claims that there comes to him information from the Heavens. Listen to his words and then come to me.’ So he rode on until he came to Makkah and he heard his words and then came back to Abu Dharr and said: ‘I saw him exhorting people to develop good morals and his expressions can in no way be termed as poetry.’ Abu Dharr replied: ‘You did not satisfy me with that which I had in my mind.’ So he took up provisions for the journey and a water-skin containing water and set forth until he came to Makkah. He came to the mosque and began to look for the Prophet ﷺ but he did not know him. He did not like that he should ask anyone about him until it was night, so he slept. `Ali saw him and recognised him as a stranger. So he went with him. He followed him but neither enquired from the other about anything until it was morning. He then brought the water and his provisions to the mosque and spent a day there, but he did not see the Prophet ﷺ and it was night. He then returned to his bed, and there happened to pass `Ali who said to him: “Is it not yet time for you to find your destination?” He made him stand and go with him, and still no one enquired from his companion about anything. When it was the third day he did the same. `Ali made him get up and brought him along with him. He said: “Why don't you talk to me and tell me what brought you here to this town?” He said: ‘I shall, provided you promise me and give me a covenant that you would guide me.’ He did so. `Ali then said: ‘Surely, he is truthful and he is the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. When it is morning, follow me. If I sense fear about you I would stand as if I was throwing water. If I move on, follow me until you enter where I enter.' He did, and he followed him until he came to Allah’s Messenger ﷺ. He entered upon the Prophet ﷺ along with him and listened to his words and embraced Islam there and then.” [103] Reported by al-Bukhari (3861) and Muslim (2474), and this is his wording. Abu Dharr was deliberate and careful until he reached what he wanted. He kept searching for the Prophet ﷺ and seeking him out, taking care not to alert Quraysh of his presence so that he is not distracted from his purpose for which he bore much difficulty.Deliberation in Poetry

❖ al-Nabighah said:

“Gentleness is a blessing and deliberation is happiness,
So be deliberate in gentleness, and you will have success.” [104] Kitab al-`Ayn, al-Khalil (8/401).
❖ The poet said:

“Be deliberate, you will be successful in all your affairs
And once you decide upon a desired matter, have trust.” [105] Tahdhib al-Lughah, al-Azhari (15/398).

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