(In this year) ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, may Allah be well pleased with him, removed Qudaamah ibn Madh’oon from his post in al-Bahrayn, may Allah be well please with him, and had him whipped for drinking liquors. (‘Umar) then placed Aboo Bakrah as governor of al-Bahrayn and Yamaamah in his stead.
The first person to enter Byzantine territory, was Aboo Bahriyyah ‘Abdullah ibn Qays. It has also been said that Maysarah ibn Masrooq ibn ‘Absee was first. Prisoners and booty were taken (on that first expedition)
Her name is Zaynab bint Jahash ibn Riyaab ibn Ya’mur, and she is one of the wives of the Prophet ﷺ, and accordingly the Mother of the Believers. Her mother was Umaymah bint ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the paternal aunt of the Prophet, ﷺ; she was from the Emigrants. She was married to Zayd ibn al-Haarithah who divorced her and whom Allah the most High then married to His Prophet ﷺ thereafter. An ayah was revealed concerning her: ((And ˹remember, O Prophet˺ when you said to the one for whom Allah has done a favor and you ˹too˺ have done a favor, “Keep your wife and fear Allah,” while concealing within yourself what Allah was going to reveal. And ˹so˺ you were considering the people, whereas Allah was more worthy of your consideration. So, when Zaid totally lost interest in ˹keeping˺ his wife, We gave her to you in marriage,)) (al-Ahzaab, 37).
She was known of being charitable and always inclined to good deeds. She was also a very able craftswoman who worked with her hands, who would always give away what she made in the way of Allah.
When she went to live with the Prophet ﷺ her name was "Barrah", but he ﷺ changed her name and gave her the name “Zaynab”. Her fear of Allah and piety were remarkable and exemplary, an example of which was the position she took regarding ‘Aa’ishah and the issue which was fabricated against her (i.e. the lie which the hypocrites had fabricated against ‘Aa’ishah of having committed an indecency with Safwaan ibn al-Mu’attal and was later vindicated by an ayah in Surat’ul-Noor). ‘Aa’ishah related: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ asked Zaynab bint Jahash regarding me, what she knew or had seen about me. And so, she replied: “Oh Messenger of Allah! I (usually) protect my eyes and ears (from hearing vain talk)! By Allah! I have only known good from her!” She used to be in equal stature as me amongst the wives of the Prophet, ﷺ. Allah then protected her through her fear of Him.
She was the first of the wives of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ who died after he had, just as the Messenger of Allah ﷺ had informed everyone. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab is the one who prayed over her (when she died), while Usaamah ibn Zayd, Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Jahsh and Abdullah ibn Abee Ahmad ibn Jahsh placed her in her grave. She was buried in the cemetery of al-Baqee’; may Allah be well pleased with her and make her (everlastingly) content.
His name was Flavius Heraclius Augustus, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire (at the time); he was from Armenian stock. He began his rise to power in 608 of the current era. He led a successful revolution against the emperor Phocas, who gained power after overthrowing Maurice the emperor, who had not much popularity and ruled in times that were full of hardships which were plaguing the empire at the time.
Heraclius the Elder, Heraclius’s father, was a successful army general, who had taken part in the imperial wars of emperor Maurice. He is considered to be the founder of a dynasty which continued to rule the Byzantine empire until the year 711. Heraclius Augustus defeated the Persians at the Battle of Ninaveh in the 5th year of the Hijrah, until he suffered great losses at the hands of the Muslims at the Battle of Yarmook in the 14th year of the Hijrah.
Heraclius predicted the impending victories of the Muslims, as it is explained in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree. Heraclius is reported to have said to Aboo Sufyaan-before he had converted to Islam: “If what you say is true, then he shall take possession of the very spot I stand upon; I had been informed that such a person was coming, but I never would have thought that it would have been from a person from your people! And if he truly is as you say, then I would have taken it upon myself to go and meet him, and had I been near him, I would wash his feet.
Heraclius had almost accepted Islam, however, his fear of losing his kingdom prevented him from doing so. Just as it has been reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree. Ibn Nathoor states: “Heraclius was star-gazing, seeking a sign. When he was asked (about what he had seen), he replied: “This evening, when I looked upon the stars, I saw that the King of the Circumcised Ones had appeared. Who then is circumcised amongst us?” Those present responded: “No one circumcises except the Jews; but they should not bother you. Write to the (governors) in the various cities within your kingdom and have all the Jews killed.” Whilst they were about to proceed with this plan, a messenger from the Ghassanid King at the time, came bringing news about the appearance of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. When he had delivered his message, Heraclius turned and said: “go and see if (the messenger) is circumcised or not.” (His guards) indeed found out that the (Arab) messenger was circumcised, and so they asked him regarding the Arabs, to which he replied: “they are all circumcised.” Heraclius then said: “The king of these people has appeared.”
He then wrote to a friend of his in Rome who was one of his equals in terms of knowledge. Heraclius then made his way to Homs; he had not yet reached the city when a message from his friend came acknowledging and confirming Heraclius’s opinion that the Prophet ﷺ was indeed a prophet. Heraclius then summoned the nobles of Byzantium to a villa of his in Homs and the ordered that its gates be locked. He then ascended and began to speak saying: “Oh nobles of Byzantium! Are you not of good fortune and sound judgement, and the longevity of your reign that you should pledge allegiance to this prophet?” They proceeded to turn away haughtily and make their way to the gates, which they found locked. When Heraclius saw their annoyance, he despaired from his faith. He then called out to his guards: “Return them to me.” And then said: “I had but said what I said just now, to test you in and your resolve in your faith, and I have seen that indeed you are steadfast.” Then then prostrated to him and were content with what he said. Heraclius met his demise later in life when he had grown older and had relinquished his power over the military.
Just as Al-Shaam had been hit with the plague of ‘Amwaas, so was the Hijaaz hit with a severe famine brought by widespread drought. That year became known as The Year of Ashes, such that ‘Umar asked for help from Egypt and Al-Shaam. The governor of each then sent foodstuffs (and other things) which helped to alleviate the plight of the people during that time.
After attaining victory at Ayn Shams (Heliopolis), the Muslims consolidated their victory by directing their military power immediately, towards the fortress at Baab Liyoon, on its northern and eastern fronts. The walls of the fortress encompassed an area that was greater than 60 acres (252 km2). The Muslims hit the impregnable fortress with a mighty siege, not caring about the catapults of the Byzantines, which only increased their zeal, their love for fighting for the sake of Allah, and their desire to die as martyrs while attacking the fortress, as well as a series of skirmishes and surprise attacks that were designated to weaken the moral of the besieged. No sooner had the siege reached a month, but that the Muqawqis of Egypt (the Patriarch of Egypt) had begun to despair. He then requested that negotiations begin for a peace treaty.
‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas then sent a delegation to begin negotiations which was headed by ‘Ubaadah ibn al-Saamit, who was ordered that the negotiations do not exceed the discussion of three choices, and which the Byzantines could only choose one. The first of which was to enter Islam, or that they pay the jizyah to the Muslims, or that they let the matter be decided through a prolongation of the battle. The Byzantines did not accept the terms of the first two propositions and decided to continue fighting. But the Muqawqis decided to conclude a peace treaty with ‘Amr after he became convinced that he could not stand a chance in the face of the attacking Muslim armies. The peace treaty was concluded, and the bloodshed stopped, deciding to pay the jizyah to the Muslims, rather than keep on fighting. He wrote the terms of the treaty and then sent them to Heraclius seeking his approval; he then hurried to Alexandria leaving the fortress. He attached to the terms of the treaty, a letter addressed to Heraclius seeking his forgiveness (for having failed) and for having concluded this treaty with the Muslims. There was nothing left for Heraclius to do but to rebuke the Muqawqis and the Byzantine generals for having lost their spirits (in the heat of battle) and for their neglect in the fight vis-à-vis the Muslims. This meant that he was refusing the terms of the treaty.
The Muslims therefore renewed fighting and increased the intensity of the siege after the failure of the treaty. Amidst the fighting came the news of Heraclius’s death which shattered the strength of the soldiers within the fortress, increasing them in despair.
Whilst the bravery and courage of the Muslims were awakening and becoming firmer, and their morale was becoming stronger in the thick of battle, Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwaam volunteered to scale the walls of the fortress under the cover of night. The plan came to fruition with the help of a ladder that had been placed there for him in order to help him climb to the top of the ramparts. The Byzantines were oblivious to the plan and only became aware of it when they heard the loud cries of al-Zubayr proclaiming: “Allahu Akbar” shattering the calm of the night. The Muslims did not falter and delay in following him up and over the walls, their cries of “Allahu Akbar!” preceding them and resonating through the air, unnerving the hearts of the Byzantines, which had by now been completely filled with despair. Those exclamations extolling Allah’s greatness proved to be much more effective weapons than all of the ones they had used until now. Even the general of the fortress was demanding from ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas that they conclude a peace treaty.
When the Muslims had conquered Baab lyoon and its surrounding areas in the countryside until Alexandria, village by village, until they reached a place called Balheeb, a village known as al-Reesh. The ruler of Alexandria sent a message to ‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas saying: “I would pay poll-tax (jizyah) to the Persians and the Byzantines, who were more hated to me than any other. Therefore, if you want the poll-tax from me, then I shall willingly pay it, so long as you return to me the lands you have taken from me.” ‘Amr then wrote to ‘Umar requesting permission to proceed with the request of Alexandria’s ruler; and (the Muslims) stopped the war until they heard back from ‘Umar. When it came back, it said: “I swear by my life, that the jizyah is more beloved to me than spoils of war which are divided and then are like as if they never were; as for the prisoners that you have, if their king gives you the jizyah, then give them choice between Islam and the religion of their people. Whosoever chooses Islam then they are from amongst the Muslims, and whoever chooses the religion of his people then upon them is the jizyah. As for those who have become spread out across the various regions, then we cannot return them.”
‘Amr then showed the ruler of Alexandria the letter who agreed with its terms; the prisoners were rounded up, and the Christians gathered, and they were given the choice, one by one. Whoever chose (to be with) the Muslims, the people yelled “Allahu Akbar”, and if someone chose to stay with the Christians the people would snort and upon them the jizyah became incumbent. This was carried out until there was no one left. Amongst the prisoners was Aboo Maryam Abdullah ibn ‘Abdul-Rahmaan, who chose Islam and became the Zubayd’s general.
The Persians had gathered at Nahaawand under the leadership of Dhoo al-Haajib, after losing several of their cities. This remained there for a while because ‘Umar, may Allah be well pleased with him, had not given the Muslims permission to continue their forays into Persian territory. However, when they continuously reneged on the conditions of their treaties because they were able to regroup and regain strength with the help of their soldiers in Nahaawand, ‘Umar sought the council from the general population of the Muslims about what to do regarding the Persians gathering there. He intended to lead the expedition himself to fight them. ‘Alee counselled him saying: “you need to send (to the Persians) two-thirds of the people of Koofah and likewise those of Basra.” ‘Umar then asked him: “counsel me, who shall I use as their general?” They responded: “you are the wisest among us, and the most knowledge [regarding the states] of your people.” So, he said to them: “I shall appoint as their general, man who shall head the front in the bravest of ways.”
‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, may Allah be well pleased with him, therefore sent Al-Saa’ib ibn al-Aqra’, a freed slave of Thaqeef- he was a scribe and was able to count; ‘Umar told him: “The truth is with this army, if Allah gives these (soldiers) victory, then dispense the spoils of war amongst the Muslim fighters, and take the Fifth which belongs to Allah and the Fifth of the Messenger. If this army were to fail then I do not want to see you, and spread out to the farthest reaches of the Earth, because the interior of the Earth would be better for you.”
‘Umar then sent to the people of Koofah to send reinforcement to the Muslim army; thus, al-Nu’maan led a platoon made up of nearly 30,000 soldiers, amongst them were Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamaan, Zubayr ibn al-Awwaam, Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah, Ash’ath ibn Qays, ‘Amr ibn ‘Adee Karb, and ibn ‘Umar. They arrived at Nahaawand and met with the Persians on a Wednesday. Al-Nu’maan strongly urged people to fight, and Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah advised him that they should engage in battle quickly. Al-Nu’maan then said: “Verily I have seen the Messenger of Allah ﷺ delay a battle if it does not occur at the beginning of the day, until the sun set, and the winds began to lightly blow, and it was time to pray, and fighting becomes easier, and victory (is more likely to) descend; this is the only thing that prevented me from hastening.” Then he asked Allah: “Oh Allah! Verily I ask You that you cool my eyes today, with the sight of victory filled with honor and glory for Islam, and abasement which renders the disbelievers servile and ashamed. Thereafter, grip my soul in martyrdom! Now all of you! Say, Ameen!” And the crowd of soldiers, with tears in their eyes, said ameen.
Then Al-Nu’maan said: “I shall shake this standard three times; the first shall be a signal for every man to relieve himself and then to make ablutions (wudu’); the second shall be a signal for every man to cast off their clothes and their weapons; and the third shall be the signal that everyone attack, and let no one look back to anyone, and if Al-Nu’maan is killed then let no one turn back for him. For verily, I have asked Allah for something which I have become determined that every single man ask Allah for it to materialize.” He then said: “O Allah! Grant the Muslims your assistance and victory through the martyrdom of Al-Nu’maan!” The soldiers all then said “Ameen.” He then shook the standard three times and led the charge with everyone following behind him.
The non-Arabs had bound themselves in chains so that they would flee (from the battlefield). The Muslims managed to attack and kill them. (In the melee) Al-Nu’maan was hit by an arrow and killed; may Allah have mercy on him and his brother, Suwayd ibn Muqarrin, wrapped him in his garment and hid the fact that he had been slain until Allah granted the Muslims victory. He then passed on the Muslim’s standard to Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamaan. Then Allah decreed that the Persian general, al-Haajib, be slain; Nahaawand was then conquered, and the non-Arabs no longer had a place to gather [nor did they ever gather again and conspire against the Muslims.]
A messenger from the Muslims was sent to ‘Umar bearing news of the victory, when he arrived, he said to ‘Umar: “O Commander of the Faithful! Rejoice, for victory has been granted (to the Muslims)! May Allah ennoble Islam and the Muslims!” ‘Umar then praised Allah, the Mighty and Majestic and said: “Has Al-Nu’maan sent you?” The messenger replied: “Al-Nu’maan has resigned himself to Allah and now awaits his reward in the Hereafter.” ‘Umar wept when he heard the news of his death and then pulled himself together and said: “Who else!?!” The messenger said: “so-and-so” And he mentioned the names of those who had been martyred until he had mentioned a great deal of people. “And many others, oh Commander of the Faithful, whom you do not know.” ‘Umar then wept again and said: “It does matter if ‘Umar does not know them, but Allah knows who they are.”
He is Aboo Sulaymaan; Khaalid ibn al-Waleed ibn al-Mugheerah ibn Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Makhzoom al-Qurashee al-Makhzoomee, famously known as the Sword of Allah. During the period before Islam, he was considered to be one of the noblemen of Quraysh and the one responsible for the horses. He fought the wars with the disbelievers of Quraysh that lasted until the ‘Umrah of Hudaybiyyah, just as it has been narrated in Saheeh Bukhaaree: that he used to be at the forefront of the cavalry with Quraysh, then he accepted Islam in the 7th year after the Hijrah, after the Battle of Khaybar, and some reports say that he did so earlier.
Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) sent him to fight the apostates, and he unleashed upon them a terrible battle. He was then put in charge of the armies going out to fight the Byzantines and the Persians, where he dealt them a great blow. He then went on to conquer Damascus. Aboo Bakr then put him in charge of all of Al-Shaam until the time where he was removed from his post by ‘Umar. The Prophet ﷺ said: “what a blessing is the slave of Allah, Khaalid ibn al-Waleed; he is one of the Swords of Allah which He has drawn upon the disbelievers.”
When Khaalid was on his deathbed, he said: “there is not a night more beloved to me upon the face of the Earth, more beloved to me, than a freezing night in which I was standing in a battalion of the Emigrants in which we lie in wait to attack the disbelievers in the early morning. I entreat you all to engage in Jihaad…”
He died in the city of Homs while others have said that he died in al-Madeenah. When he did die, ‘Umar attended his funeral and said: “There is no blame on the women of the family of al-Waleed to shed tears over Khaalid, so long as there is no loud lamentation and wailing.” Ibn Hajar said that this is a proof that he died in al-Madeenah.
After the conquest of Nahaawand, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab felt secure in allowing the Muslim armies to continue their forays into the rest of Persia, and so he ordered them to pursue that course of action. Amongst those put in charge of this mission was Nu’aym ibn Muqarrin and his brother Nu’maan. They made their way to Hamadhaan and conquered it, and then he left as its governor Yazeed ibn Qays, then the army made its way to Rayy-modern-day Tehran, and likewise conquered it. He then sent his brother Suwayd ibn Muqarrin to Qoomis and took it peacefully and concluded a treaty with its people. Then came the people of Gorgaan, Tabaristaan, who likewise concluded treaties with them. Whilst Nu’aym was in Hamadhaan, he sent Bukayr ibn Abdullah to Azerbaijaan and sent Abdullah ibn Sammaak ibn Kharashah as reinforcement, who together conquered the area, while ‘Utbah ibn Farqad conquered Azerbaijaan through another front.
‘Amr ibn al-‘Aas travelled to Cyrenaica and concluded a peace treaty with its people; he then sent ‘Uqbah ibn Naafi’ to Zaweelah and then directed himself towards Nubia. Then, ‘Amr went to Tripoli and conquered it after sieging it for a month. Then he conquered [the ancient Roman city of] Sabratha and then to the [Berber] city of Shroos [in The Mountains of Nafoosah]. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab then forbade him from going any further west.
She was the Mother of the Believers, Sawdah bint Zam’ah ibn Qays ibn ‘Abdu-Shams ibn Abdu Wudd. Her mother was al-Shamoos bint Qays ibn ‘Amr ibn Zayd ibn Labeed. She had been married to al-Sakraan ibn ‘Amr ibn Abdu-Shams ibn Wudd. (She was amongst the first of people) to have accepted Islam in Makkah and who had pledged her allegiance. Her husband al-Sakraan ibn ‘Amr, later accepted Islam as well. They both emigrated to Ethiopia during the second flight of Muslims to that land. Al-Sakraan ibn ‘Amr died in Makkah upon his return with his wife from their exile in Ethiopia.
After Sawdah bint Zam’ah had undergone her waiting period (‘iddah), the Messenger of Allah ﷺ sent someone to her in order to ask for her hand in marriage. She responded: “O Messenger of Allah! My affair is in your hands!”. To which the Messenger of Allah ﷺ replied: “name a man from your people to marry you to me”. She asked Haatib ibn ‘Amr ibn Abdu-Shams ibn ‘Abd Wudd to do so, and he married her (to the Prophet ﷺ). She was the first woman the Prophet ﷺ had married after the death of Khadeejah, may Allah be well pleased with her. She emigrated with him ﷺ to al-Madeenah; she was the one who had gifted her day with the Prophet ﷺ to ‘Aa’ishah after she became older. She passed away towards the end of the reign of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab; may Allah be well pleased with them both.
There was a young slave that belonged to al-Mugheerah by the name of Fayrooz Aboo Lu’lu’ah al-Majoosi (the Manichean). He (was allowed) to remain in al-Madeenah because of his knowledge of craftsmanship that benefited the Muslims. However, he was very envious and resentful towards ‘Umar. He was a despicable Manichean who was plotting and waiting in the shadows for the perfect opportunity to pounce on ‘Umar. So, he prepared a dagger with two cutting-edges, coated it with poison, and then waited for an opportunity to attack ‘Umar during the fajr prayer.
As soon as ‘Umar entered the prayer and had commenced the prayer with the words of takbeer (said “Allahu Akbar”), Aboo Lu’lu’ah stabbed him six times in his side. He then tried to escape between the lines of people who were praying, stabbing whoever was in front of him, until ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf stood up and threw his cloak over him (mobilizing him). When the filthy (Aboo Lu’lu’ah) realized that he had been captured, he stabbed himself with his dagger and died. Thirteen men had died from stab wounds inflicted by Aboo Lu’lu’ah. As for ‘Umar, he placed ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf in his stead to lead the rest of the Fajr Prayer. Later, those who had brought ‘Umar to his home began to examine him. A doctor came over and he gave him nabeedh to drink (a drink made of dates which had soaked in water) and it came out turbid and murky. They gave him milk to drink, and it came out outright. Then it was said to him: “O Commander of the Faithful, give us your decree (concerning what we must do now).” So ‘Umar ordered his son, Abdullah, to find who stabbed him, and Abdullah told him: “You were stabbed by Aboo Lu’lu’ah, the slave of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah.” To that, ‘Umar replied: “All praises are due to Allah, who has not placed my death in the hands of a man who had prostrated to Allah a single prostration! O Abdullah! Go to ‘Aa’ishah and ask her if she would permit me to be buried with the Prophet ﷺ and Aboo Bakr.” ‘Umar then remained in that state for three days until he passed away from his wounds; may Allah be well pleased with him and suffice him. Suhayb prayed his funeral over him; then he was buried next to Aboo Bakr in ‘Aa’ishah’s room. Thus, he was with his two companions, just as he was with them in this worldly life. ‘Umar is one of The Ten Companions Promised Paradise. His reign lasted for 10 years, 5 months, and 21 days. It was filled with conquests in the name of Islam and filled with justice. May Allah reward him with immense good for all that he did for Islam and all the Muslims.
After ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, may Allah be well pleased with him, was stabbed with a poisoned dagger and that it was confirmed that he would die, he was asked to nominate a successor to take his place, just as Aboo Bakr had done before him, may Allah be well pleased with him, when he nominated him. However, he refused, and instead he appointed six Companions, all of whom were from the ten that were promised paradise. These were ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan, ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib, ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf, Zubayr ibn al-‘Awwaam, S’ad ibn Abee Waqqaas, and Talhah ibn ‘Ubaydullah, may Allah be well pleased with all of them. (‘Umar) then ordered them to select a man from amongst themselves to take his place after his death; and when he died and the funeral prayer was complete, and he was buried, they gathered in the dwelling of al-Miswar ibn Makhzamah.
Al-Miqdaad ibn al-Aswad gathered them there, Abdullah ibn ‘Umar was present as well, and they discussed for a while until ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf then said: “Who will take it upon themselves to remove themselves from being a candidate to the Caliph position, so that you may surely nominate whom you consider to be the best? Verily, it is I.” Meaning, he was removing himself from the pool of candidates and stepping down from the possibility of being nominated to take the post of Caliph. However, (on the condition) that the appointing of the Caliph be his responsibility. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan thus exerted himself asking everyone and anyone he could think of, until it was said of him: “he did not even neglect to ask young children.” He asked them: “who do you think should be appointed a Caliph?” He remained in this state for 3 days at which point he reconvened everyone and asked ‘Alee ibn Abee Taalib if he would take the place of the two Caliphs before him, and he said that he would act according to his knowledge and his capabilities (e.g., he would act according to what he thought was best not to what his predecessors before him did). However, when ‘Uthmaan was asked, he responded affirmatively, (that he would act according to how his two predecessors acted), and so ‘Abd al-Rahmaan pledged his allegiance to him, then the rest of the people including Alee ibn Abee Taalib. Talhah had been absent, but when he returned, he also pledged his allegiance. It was also said that when ‘‘Abd al-Rahmaan had asked everyone, it was almost certain that they would agree on ‘Uthmaan.”
This was the story of how ‘Uthmaan became the Caliph of Muslims; may Allah be well pleased with him and may He satisfy him.
The governor of Koofah, al-Waleed ibn ‘Uqbah executed various military incursions into Azerbaijan and Armenia with an army that was led by Sulaymaan ibn Rabee’ah. He did so because the inhabitants of those two areas had stopped abiding by the stipulations of the treaty that had been concluded with Hudhayfah ibn al-Yamaan during the reign of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab. Al-Waleed therefore pressured them into renewing the treaty once again.