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Section XI: The Tashahhud, Sitting for It, The Abrahamic Supplication, and Supplicating Before Salams

Firstly: The Ruling of the First Tashahhud and Sitting During It
The first tashahhud and sitting during it are wajib. This is the position of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools as well as one narration from Malik. It is the position of Dawud al-Zahiri and the conclusion of the majority of Hadith specialists. It is the position of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Secondly: Formulations of the Tashahhud
Among the most authentic formulations of the tashahhud are: Greetings belong to Allah, as do prayers and good deeds. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Blessed greetings, prayers belong to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Good greetings, prayers belong to Allah. Peace be upon you, O Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I testify that there is no god but Allah, and I testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.
Thirdly: The Ruling of Praying for the Prophet ﷺ After the First Tashahhud
Scholars are of two positions regarding the ruling of praying for the Prophet ﷺ after the first tashahhud:
The first position: One does not recite anything after the first tashahhud. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, and Hanbalis, and al-Shafi`i’s old position. It is the position of a group among the Salaf.
The second position: It is sunnah to pray for the Prophet ﷺ after the first tashahhud. This is the position of the Shafi`i school. It was chosen by Ibn Hubayrah, al-Ajurri, Ibn Hazm, and Ibn Baz.
Fourthly: Reciting the Tashahhud Quietly
It is sunnah to recite the tashahhud quietly and to avoid reciting it out loud. Ibn Qudamah and al-Nawawi related consensus on this.
Fifthly: The Ruling of the Final Tashahhud
The final tashahhud is an integral of prayer. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools, Dawud al-Zahiri, and one position among Malikis. A group of the Salaf held this view. Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin chose this view as well.
Sixthly: The Ruling of Sitting During the Final Tashahhud
Sitting during the final tashahhud is an integral of prayer. Consensus on this was related by al-Nawawi and Ibn Hajar.
Seventhly: The Ruling of Praying for the Prophet ﷺ After the Final Tashahhud
Scholars are of two positions regarding the ruling of praying for the Prophet ﷺ after the final tashahhud: [376] While they reached consensus on it being legislated, as mentioned by Ibn al-Qayyim and Ibn Rajab.
The first position: Praying for the Prophet ﷺ after the final tashahhud is sunnah. This is the position of the Hanafi and Maliki schools, one narration from Ahmad, and the position of the Zahiri school. It is the position of the majority of the scholars. It is the selected opinion of Ibn Jareer, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
The second position: Praying for the Prophet ﷺ after the final tashahhud is an obligation which is not omitted whether intentionally or forgetfully. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools and some Malikis. Ibn al-`Arabi chose this opinion. A group of the Salaf was of this opinion. It is the chosen opinion of Ibn Baz.
Eighthly: How to Sit in Prayers with Two Tashahhuds
It is sunnah to sit in iftirash [377] Iftirash is to place the left foot on its side and sit on it while erecting the right foot. during the first tashahhud and in tawarruk [378] There are two ways of performing tawarruk according to the authentic sunnah: The first way: to lay down the left foot on its side as it juts out the right side with the buttocks on the floor. The right foot is erected. The second way: to place the right on its side and place the left foot between the right thigh and shank. Some of the scholars limited it to the first way, indicating that the second way is the same as the first. during the second. This is for prayers that have two tashahhuds. [379] Al-Nawawi says: “Our companions say: ‘The wisdom of sitting in iftirash in the first tashahhud and tawarruk in the second is that it is closer to remembering in prayer and not getting confused regarding the number of units prayed. Also, since the sunnah is to keep the first tashahhud brief, one sits in iftirash during it so that it is easier to stand up. The sunnah is to extend the second, and there is no standing after it, so one sits in tawarruk in order that it be more conducive for him and settled such that he might supplicate abundantly. Also, when a latecomer sees him, he knows which of the two tashahhuds he is observing.’” (Al-Majmu’, 3/451) This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools. It is the chosen position of Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Ninthly: How to Sit in Prayers with One Tashahhud
It is sunnah to sit in iftirash during the tashahhud of prayers that have a single tashahhud. This is the position of the Hanafi [380] The Hanafi school’s position is to sit in iftirash during the first and last tashahhud. and Hanbali schools. It is the position of some of the Salaf. Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin chose this position.
Tenthly: Extending the Forefinger During the Tashahhud
It is sunnah to extend the forefinger during the tashahhud. This is a matter of agreement among the four schools of jurisprudence.
Eleventhly: Moving the Forefinger During the Tashahhud
Moving the forefinger during the tashahhud is not legislated. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools, and was chosen by Ibn Hazm.
Twelfthly: Where to Look During the Tashahhud
It is sunnah to look at the forefinger when praying. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools. Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin chose this position.
Thirteenthly: The Merit of Supplicating Before Salams
It is mustahabb to supplicate after the tashahhud and praying for the Prophet ﷺ and before salams.
Fourteenthly: The Ruling of Seeking Protection from Four Matters After the Tashahhud
It is sunnah to seek protection from four matters after the final tashahhud: the torment of Hell, the torment of the grave, the trials of life and death, and the evil of the False Christ. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


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