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Section I: The Call to Prayer

Firstly: Defining the Call to Prayer
Adhan linguistically: is proclamation.
Adhan technically: is worshipping Allah with special utterances upon the entering of the prayer time, announcing its entry.
Secondly: Virtues of the Call to Prayer
The call to prayer has grand virtues and great benefits, among which are:
a) It is mustahabb to compete in doing it, due to its honour and virtue
b) The devil flees from it
c) Those who give the call to prayer are the ones with the tallest necks on the Day of Judgement.
d) The one who gives the call is forgiven in accordance to how far his voice reaches, and every patch of land affirms the truth of his statements
e) The one who gives the call to prayer will have all those who heard his call bear witness for him from mankind and jinn.
Thirdly: Preferring the Call to Prayer or Leading It
Calling to the prayer is better than leading the prayer. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, a position among the Hanafis, a position among the Malikis, and the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Fourthly: Wisdom in Legislating the Call to Prayer
Some wisdom why the call to prayer is legislated:
a) Exhibiting the signs of Islam and the statement of monotheism
b) Proclaiming when the time for each prayer enters
c) Proclaiming where it will be held
d) Calling for the more rewarding congregational prayer
e) Announcing that the land is one of Islam, not Kufr.
The call to prayer is a communal obligation. This is the position of the Hanbalis, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan from the Hanafis, a position among the Malikis, and the position of some Shafi`is. It is also the choice of Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Taymiyyah, Dawud al-Zahiri, Abu al-Walid al-Baji, Ibn Baz, al-Albani, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Sixthly: The Ruling of the Prayer without Its Call
The prayer without its call or the call to its initiation is valid, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Seventhly: Agreement Among a People in a Land to Not Call the Prayer
If a people in a land agree to stop calling the prayer, then they are fought. [251] Ibn `Uthaymin said: “The one who fights them is the Imam, and this is until they begin calling for the prayer. This is a form of disciplining in order to establish this obligation, and it is not out of making their blood permissible. For this reason, their fleeing fighters are not followed, nor are their wounded killed, nor is their war booty to reclaim from them, nor are their offspring enslaved. They are Muslims, and are only fought out of discipline.” Al-Sharh al-Mumti` (47/2) This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and some Shafi`is.
Eighthly: What the Call to Prayer is Legislated for
1. The five daily prayers
The call to prayer is legislated for the five wajib daily prayers, but not for their respective voluntary prayers or any other additional prayers. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by: Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and al-Nawawi.
2. While travelling
It is mustahabb to call for the prayer and its initiation when travelling, even if travelling by oneself. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence and it is the view of the majority of scholars.
3. The call to prayer and its initiation for the combined prayers
Whoever combines between two prayers calls for the initiation of each. [252] Hanafis agree with this position regarding combining prayers in the standing of `Arafah, and some Hanafis followed this position for Muzdalifah as well. Otherwise, the origin for Hanafis is that combining the prayers is not legislated except on those two occasions. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, a position among the Malikis, and the position of Ibn Hazm.
4. The call to the prayer and its initiation for the solitary
It is mustahabb for the solitary person to call for the prayer and its initiation. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a position among the Malikis.
5. The call to the prayer and its initiation when making up past prayers
- The call to the prayer and its initiation when making up one past prayer
Calling the prayer and its initiation is legislated when making up one past prayer. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, [253] They excepted zuhr prayer in a city on the day of jumu`ah, then it is makruh to call for it. the most apparent position among Shafi`is, the Hanbalis, a position among the Malikis, and it is the position of Abu Thawr and Dawud al-Zahiri
- The call to the prayer and its initiation when making up many past prayers
If there are many prayers to make up, then the call is made for the first, and the rest are only initiated. This is the relied upon position of the Shafi`is, the position of the Hanbalis, a position among the Hanafis, and a position among Malikis.
- The call to the prayer and its initiation for the one who entered the mosque but the prayer has been concluded
Scholars have differed over whether or not the one who entered a mosque where the prayer has been concluded should call for the prayer and its initiation, and this is according to many views, the strongest of which are two:
The first: is that it is sunnah to call for both, but without raising his voice in the call to prayer. This is the position of the Shafi`is, liked by Ibn Hazm, and it is the position of some of the Salaf.
The second: is that he should call for the initiation only, without calling for the prayer. This is the position of the Malikis, some of the Salaf, and the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
6. Calling for the prayer when devils are beguiling [254] Taghawwul al-ghilan literally means the intensifying of the ghouls’ ‘ghoulness’. It actually refers to a type of devil or jinn – the ghoul – who the Arabs believed took different forms and colours in the desert for travellers to lead them astray and destroy them – taghawwul. When this is believed to have taken place, the call to prayer is legislated. Ibn `Uthaymin said: “Ghilan are the illusions and whims that are presented to people in their travels, especially those ancient travels on camel back. It may also be the devils which scare a solitary traveller, appearing to him in scary and unpleasant forms: a lion, wolf, or hyena.” Sharh Riyad al-Salihin 548/5)
It is mustahabb to call for the prayer when devils are beguiling a group of people and creating illusions to misguide them. This is explicitly mentioned by the Shafi`is and Ibn `Abidin from the Hanafis. It is also the choice of Ibn Baz.
Ninthly: Announcing for Prayers without a Call
1. Eid prayer
- The call to the prayer and its initiation for Eid
Eid prayer has no call nor initiation, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- Announcing Eid prayer by saying: “Prayer is unifying”
Eid prayer is not announced for with the statement “Prayer is unifying”. This is the position of the Malikis and a position among the Hanbalis. It is also the choice of Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-San`ani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
2. Rain prayer
The prayer for rain has no call or initiation, [255] Consensus has been quoted on the matter by: Ibn Hazm, Ibn Battal, Ibn Qudamah, and al-Nawawi. nor is it called for with “Prayer is unifying”. This is the position of the Malikis and a position among the Hanbalis. It is also the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
3. The eclipse prayer
It is sunnah to call for the eclipse prayer by announcing “Prayer is unifying”. [256] Ibn Baz said: “It has been authentically transmitted from the Prophet ﷺ that he commanded that the eclipse prayer be called for by the announcement: ‘Prayer is unifying.’ The sunnah for the announcer is that he repeats this, until he is sure people have heard him. There is no specific limit for repetitions as far as our knowledge goes.” Majmu` Fatawa Ibn Baz (38/13) This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Tenthly: The Conditions of the Call to Prayer
1. The time entering
It is a condition of the call to prayer that it is only made after the entering of the prayer for which it is called. The call for the prayer must not be made before its time. Consensus has been quoted on the time entering as a condition for the call except for fajr: Ibn Jarir, Ibn Rushd, al-Nawawi, and al-Haytami.
What is excepted from the condition of the time entering:
- The first call for fajr prayer
It is permissible to call for the fajr prayer before it enters, and it must be repeated once it does. [257] Some scholars placed as a condition that there are two callers. This is a narration from Ahmad and the position of a group of Hadith scholars. It is also the choice of Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, al-Ghazali from the Shafi`is, al-San`ani, and Ibn Baz.
- The first call on jumu`ah
There is a preliminary first call to prayer that is legislated on jumu`ah. [258] This is the call which `Uthman ibn `Affan increased, may Allah be pleased with him. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and it is what the Ummah adheres to.
2. The intention of the call to prayer
The intention is a condition for the validity of the call to prayer. [259] A recording of the call playing, therefore, is invalid. This is the position of Ibn Baz, Ibn `Uthaymin, and the verdict of the Permanent Committee. This is the position of the Malikis, Hanbalis, and a valid position Shafi`is.
3. Order in the statements of the call
Order in the statements of the call to prayer is one of the conditions of its validity. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
4. Continuity in uttering the statements of the call
- The ruling of a small pause between utterances
A small pause between the utterances of the call does not affect its validity. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- The ruling of a long break between utterances
A long break between the utterances of the call to prayer invalidates it. In such a situation, resumption is wajib. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and a position among the Shafi`is.
5. That the call is in Arabic
It is a condition for the validity of the call to prayer that it is said in the Arabic language, and no other language suffices. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, [260] However, a call in another language is valid if the one giving it does not know Arabic and there is no one in the congregation who knows it. and Hanbalis.
6. That it is free from mistakes which change its meaning
It is a condition that the call to prayer is free from any mistake [261] Lahn is literally leaning, and it refers to the leaning of speech away from its original, sound form in Arabic, either through grammatical negligence or distortion, and the latte is more common. which affects the meaning. [262] If the mistake did not change the meaning, it is makruh, but it does not invalidate the call.
7. That it is said by a single person
It is a condition in the call to prayer that a single person says it from start to finish, and it is invalid for a person to carry on from where another left off. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- More than one person giving the call to prayer in a one mosque
It is permissible for a mosque to have more than one person giving the call to prayer. [263] It is not mustahabb for Shafi`is and Hanbalis to increase upon two unless there is a need. The position of the Shafi`is is that it is musahabb to have two, not solely permissible. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
8. Raising the voice when giving the call
Raising the voice [264] It is permissible to have the call be amplified on speakers, as audibleness when giving the call is required, and amplifying the voice is undoubtedly a means for that, so it is also required. when giving the call to prayer is a condition for its validity if the call is being given for a congregation that is not present during it. This is the position of the Shafi`is and Hanbalis, [265] It is mustahabb in both schools for the one who is praying by himself, or for a present congregation. and it is the choice of Ibn Hazm.
Eleven: The Conditions of the Caller Islam
It is a condition for the caller to the prayer to be Muslim, and the call is invalid if it is made by a disbeliever. Ibn Qudamah has quoted consensus over that. Reason
It is a condition for the caller to the prayer to have reason. Ibn Qudamah has quoted consensus over this. Maleness
It is a condition for the caller to the prayer to be male. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
- The ruling of a woman’s call to prayer
Scholars have differed over the ruling of a woman giving the call to prayer among women or for herself according to a few views; among those are:
The first: is that it is not mustahabb for them to make the call to prayer, rather only the call to its initiation. This is the position of the Malikis, Shafi`is, a narration from Ahmad, the position of Dawud al-Zahiri, and the position of some of the Salaf.
The second: It is makruh fro them to call for the prayer or its initiation. This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, a positon among Shafi`is, and the choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Twelve: What is Mustahabb for the Caller Purity
It is mustahabb for the caller to be in a state of purity, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Beauty of voice
It is mustahabb that the caller has a beautiful voice, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Freedom
It is mustahabb that the caller is free. This is explicitly mentioned by the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. Puberty
It is mustahabb that the caller has reached puberty. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. Just
It is mustahabb that the caller is just. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
- The ruling of the transgressor’s call to prayer
The call of the transgressor legally suffices and does not need to be repeated. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, and a narration from Ahmad. Seeing [266] However, if he is blind but has someone that lets him know of the time, then his and the seeing all are equal. The Prophet ﷺ had a blind caller, Ibn Umm Maktum, but he used to know the prayer times and when to give the call through Bilal, since when the latter descends, the former rises to give the call.
It is mustahabb that the caller is seeing. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. Having knowledge of the times of prayer [267] It is permissible to use a clock or a watch to know when the times for the prayers are.
It is mustahabb that the caller has knowledge of the prayer times, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Hoping for Allah’s reward [268] This is what ihtisab refers to here, so it effectively means that the caller gives the caller for the sake of Allah solely and without any monetary recompense or material gain.
- The ruling of taking a wage for giving the call
Scholars have viewed it as mustahabb that the caller gives his call voluntarily without any monetary recompense or wage. [269] Al-Tirmidhi said: “The following is what scholars acted in accordance to: they disliked that the caller takes a wage for giving the call, and they liked that he awaits Allah’s reward for his call.” Sunan al-Tirmidhi (410/1) They differed over the ruling of the caller receiving a wage for giving the call according to a number of views, the strongest of which are two:
The first: is that it is haram for the caller to take a wage for his call. This is the position of the Hanbalis, Abu Hanifah and early Hanafis, a position among Malikis, and a position among Shafi`is. It is also the choice of Ibn Hazm and Ibn `Uthaymin.
The second: It is permissible to take a wage for giving the call. This is the position of the Malikis, Shafi`is, a narration from Ahmad, and the position of Dawud al-Zahiri.
- The ruling of taking one’s provision from the state’s treasury for giving the call
It is permissible [270] Rizq among jurists is what is obligated from the treasury to be given to some cause based on need and sufficiency. to take one’s provision for the call from the treasury. This is the position of the majorty: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Ibn Hazm al-Zahiri.
Thirteen: The Description of the Call The words of the call
The call is fifteen statements: takbir four times in the beginning, then the two testimonies of faith twice each, then the invitation to prayer and success twice respectively – four overall – then takbir twice penultimately, then the statement of sincerity and faith once at the end. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, [271] Tarji` for them is sunnah in the call to prayer. To be defined shortly. Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf. Repetition of the testimonies of faith [272] Tarji` is for the caller to say the testimonies of faith quietly to himself first, then call them out loud.
It is permissible to repeat the testimonies of faith quietly first. This is the position of a group of Hadith scholars, the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Shawkami, al-Albani, and Ibn `Uthaymin. Tathwib
It is sunnah to perform tathwib [273] Tathwib is for the caller to say after the invitation to success, “Prayer is better than sleep” twice. This was called tathwib because it is an invitation after another, since there has already been an invitation to prayer, and tathwib is for anything to be done again once done the first time. in the prayer of fajr. [274] It is legislated in the call that is given after the entering of fajr. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. What the caller says during intense wind or rain
It is legislated that the caller says during intense wind or rain: “Pray in your caravans” or “Prayer in the caravans,” and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Fourteen: What is Mustahabb in the Call At the start of the time of prayer
It is mustahabb to give the call at the entering of the time, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Standing
It is mustahabb to give the call standing, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Facing the qiblah
It is mustahabb to give the call facing the qiblah. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Qudamah, and al-Kasani. On a platform
It is mustahabb to give the call upon a platform, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Placing his fingers in his ears
It is mustahabb for the caller to put his fingers in his ears as he is giving the call. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, the position of Ibn Habib from the Malikis, and that is what is followed among scholars. Tranquility and steadiness [275] Tarassul is taking care when uttering the statements of the call such that all can understand it, and avoiding being hasty and rushing.
Being steady when giving the call and having tranquillity in its delivery is a sunnah, and this is by agreement between the four schools of jurisprudence. Facing the right and left during the hay`alah [276] Refers to the statemnets that start with “Hayya `ala…” which are the invitations to prayer and success.
It is sunnah to turn right and left when saying the two statements of hay`alah. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and the position of some of the Salaf.
Fifteen: What is Makruh in the Call Being junub
The call of the junub is makruh despite its validity. This is by agreement of the four schools, and it is the position of Dawud al-Zahiri, a group from the Salaf, and the majority of scholars. Excessive melodiousness [277] Talhin is being melodious and incantatory in one’s delivery. Lahhana fi qira'atih means that he recited with immense melody.
Being excessively melodious is makruh in the call, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Walking
It is makruh for the caller to walk as the call is being given. This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, and a position among Shafi`is. Minimal talking
It is makruh for the caller to unnecessarily speak as he is giving the call, even if it is a small amount. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Sixteen: Replying to the Caller The ruling of replying to the caller
It is mustahabb to reply to the caller [278] A benefit regarding replying after the call through modern technological advancements: Ibn `Uthaymin said: “The call is one of two situations. The first is that the call is being given for a prayer to be prayed now, then this should be replied to due to the general command of the Prophet ﷺ: ‘If you hear the call, then say as the caller says.’ Jurists have said that if he had already prayed, then they do not reply. The second is that if the call is recorded and not live, then repetition is not acted upon, since this is not a true call. Meaning, it was not given when the caller was told to give it, rather it is something that has been previously given and heard.” Majmu` al-Fatawa wa Rasa'il al-`Uthaymin (196/12) as he says, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. How to repeat with the caller
The listener says as the caller says in all words [279] As for tathwib, there is difference over it, and what is most correct is that replying still takes place by saying the same as what the caller said: “Prayer is better than sleep.” except the hay`alah satements, where he says: “There is no power nor strength except through Allah.” This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a position among Malikis. How to repeat for the one who missed the call from the start
Scholars have differed over how a person repeats after the call if they did not start it from the beginning according to two views:
The first: is that he should reply with everything that has been said, what he heard from it and what he didn’t. This is the position of some Hanafis, some Malikis, a position among Shafi`is, a position among Hanbalis, and the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
The second: is that he replies to the caller with what he heard from the call only. This is the position of some Malikis, some Hanbalis, and what has been deemed most correct by Muhammad Ibrahim al-Shaykh. Replying upon hearing more than one mosque’s call
It is legislated for the listener to reply to every call he hears as long as it is legal. This is the position of the Hanbalis, some Hanafis, some Shafi`is, the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Shawkani, al-San`ani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Seventeen: Authentic Supplications after the Call Sending peace and blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ
Sending peace and blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ after the call [280] Ibn Baz said: “What some do when the call finishes, they say the last statement out loud, and they raise their voice when sending blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ, is also an innovation in religion. Rather, the call concludes with “There is no god but Allah”, then the loudspeakers should be turned off, and then peace and blessings are sent normally without unnecessary loudness. In a normal tome which he can hear, he sends blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ, then says the supplication: “Allah, Owner of this perfect call…” Joining it with the call however is an innovation.” Fatawa `ala Nur al-Darb (340/1) is mustahabb, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Asking for wasilah, fadilah, and the high station the Prophet ﷺ has been promised
Asking for wasilah, fadilah, and the high station the Prophet ﷺ has been promised is mustahabb, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Saying: “I am pleased with Allah as my Lord…”
For the one who finished listening to the call, it is recommended to say the supplication: “I bear witness there is no god but Allah, He alone without associates, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. I am pleased with Allah as my Lord, Muhammad as my Messenger, and Islam as my religion.” Supplicating between the call to the prayer and the call to its initiation
It is mustahabb to supplicate between the call to the prayer and the call to the initiation of the prayer.


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