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Section I: Rulings of Menstruation

Firstly: Defining Menstruation and the Nature of Its Blood
Hayd linguistically: is flow and abundant outpouring. One says ‘hada al-sayl’ if a stream overflows.
Hayd technically: is natural blood which leaves the womb of a post-pubescent woman through the vagina on specific days.
The nature of menstrual blood: is that it is thick, with a foul stench, and not solid.
Secondly: The Age When the Woman Begins Menstruating
There are no specified upper or lower limits in terms of the age that a girl begins her menstrual cycle. This is the position of al-Darimi from the Shafi`is, and the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Thirdly: The Shortest Duration of Menstruation
There is no limit for the shortest duration for menstruation. This is the position of the Malikis, some of the Salaf, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, al-Albani, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Fourthly: The Longest Duration of Menstruation
There is no limit for the longest duration for menstruation. This position is narrated from Malik and is held by a group of the Salaf. It is the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Shawkani, al-Albani, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Fifthly: The Menstruation of the Pregnant Woman
Scholars have differed over the possibility of a pregnant woman menstruating according to two famous views:
The first: is that the pregnant woman can menstruate. [230] As long as it is not proven medically that she cannot menstruate. This is the positon of the Malikis, Shafi`is, a narration from Ahmad, and it is the position of a group of the Salaf. It is also the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
The second: is that a pregnant woman cannot menstruate. [231] Ibn `Uthaymin said: “The pregnant woman does not menstruate normally, as this blood – by the will of Allah – goes to the embryo through the umbilical cord, and spreads through its veins as nutrition, since it cannot feed and drink normally in its mother’s womb, since, if it consumed food and drink, then they would have had to exit from it.” Al-Sharh al-Mumti` (465-464/1) This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, al-Shafi`i’s old position, the position of a group from the Salaf. It is also the choice of Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, and it is the verdict of the Permanent Committee.
Sixthly: The Rulings of a Girl Starting Her Cycle The one starting if she is discerning [232] Mumayyizah here refers to discerning in her blood, that she started to menstruate, and some of that blood is thick, stinking, dark blood, and some of it is red and thin without the foul smell. She can discern from her blood that which is black, thick, and stinking as menstruation blood, and that which is thin and red as istihadah.
A girl starting beginning to menstruate for the first time should exercise discernment if she is able to. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, some Malikis, and it is the choice of al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin. The one starting if she is not discerning
The girl starting her period if she is unable to exercise discernment is to be treated as having the same cycle as the majority of women in her family. [233] Some have placed it as a condition for menstruation that it cannot exceed fifteen days. This is the most common opinion in the Hanbali school, and it is the choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Seventhly: The Menstruating Woman Who Has a Habitual Cycle What confirms a habit in the menstruation cycle
A habit is confirmed within a menstruation cycle if it repeats three times. This is the most common opinion in the Hanbali school, and it is the choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin. The menstruating woman if she started early or late, or if her blood increased or decreased
If the woman has a particular habitual cycle, then her blood increased or decreased, or came early or finished late, then it is still menstrual blood, and whenever it seizes, then she may commence purification. This is the position of the Shafi`is, and it is the choice of Ibn Qudamah, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Eighthly: The Rulings of Yellowness and Darkness [234] Kudrah is a colour which is almost black. Yellowness and darkness during the days of menstruation
Yellow or dark secretions during the days of menstruation are also considered menstrual blood. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Yellowness and darkness outside the days of menstruation
Yellow or dark secretions outside the days of menstruation are not considered menstrual blood. This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, a position among the Malikis, a position among Shafi`is, and it is the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Ninthly: The Ruling of a Menstruating Woman’s Body and Sweat
The body and sweat of a menstruating woman are pure. Consensus has been quoted on the purity of a menstruating woman’s sweat – let alone her body – by: Ibn Jarir, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Baghawi, Ibn Qudamah, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Taymiyyah.
Tenthly: What the Menstruating Woman is Prohibited from Prayer
- The ruling of a menstruating woman’s prayer
- The ruling of a menstruating woman making up her prayers
- If a woman starts menstruating during the time of a prayer before praying it, does she make up that prayer?
All of the above will be addressed in the book of prayer.
- If a menstruating woman becomes pure before the time of prayer ending
If a menstruating woman becomes pure before the time of prayer ending, she only needs to perform the prayer during which time she became pure in. This is the position of the Hanafis, [235] According to Hanafis, the prayer is wajib if she became pure with enough time for washing and Takbirat al-Ihram. Zahiris, a group from the Salaf, and the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin. Fasting
- The ruling of fasting for a menstruating woman
- The menstruating woman making up her fasts
- The ruling of a woman withholding from food and drink if she became pure in Ramadan during the day
- The ruling of the menstruating woman’s fast if she became pure before fajr.
All of the above will be addressed in the book of fasting. Rulings during pilgrimage
- Ihram
- Washing for Ihram
- Circumambulation
- Circumambulation for a need
- Hasting between Safa and Marwah
- Circumambulation of farewell
All of the above will be addressed in the book of pilgrimage. Reciting Qur'an
It is permissible for the menstruating woman to recite the Qur'an. This is the position of the Malikis, Zahiris, a narration from al-Shafi`i regarding his old position, and a narration from Ahmad. It is also the choice of al-Tabari, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn `Uthaymin, and the verdict of the Permanent Committee. Touching the mushaf
It is haram for the menstruating woman to touch the mushaf. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence, and it is narrated by Ibn Taymiyyah as the position of the majority of scholars. Mention of Allah
It is permissible for the menstruating woman as well the one undergoing postnatal bleeding to mention Allah and utter words of His remembrance. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Remaining in the mosque
It is not permissible for the menstruating woman to remain in the mosque for a lengthy period of time. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Passing through the mosque
It is permissible for the menstruating woman to pass through the mosque if she is sure there will be no contamination. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf. It is also the choice of Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ibn Hazm, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Kathir, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin. Intercourse with a menstruating woman
- The ruling of intercourse with a menstruating woman
It is haram to have sexual intercourse with the menstruating woman. Consensus has been quoted over this by: al-Tabari, Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Qudamah, al-Qurtubi, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Taymiyyah.
- Enjoying the menstruating woman from what is above the naval and below the knee
It is permissible to enjoy the menstruating woman from what is above the naval and below the knee. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ibn Qudamah, and al-Nawawi.
- Enjoying what is covered by the waistcloth [236] Izar is a cloth wrapped around the waist, and, for women, it is equivalent to modern-day underwear. of a menstruating woman
It is permissible to enjoy what is covered by the waistcloth of a menstruating woman, even if without a barrier, as long as there is no penetration. [237] One should exercise caution in this matter, and should not be with his wife except that she is wearing the waistcloth, as the Prophet ﷺ would command his wives. Notwithstanding that the majority of jurists form the Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is view it as haram to enjoy the menstruating woman from under the waistcloth without a barrier. This is the position of the Hanbalis, Zahiris, the choice of Muhammad ibn al-Hasan and al-Tahawi from the Hanafis, an opinion among Malikis, an opinion among Shafi`is preferred by al-Nawawi, and the position of a group from the Salaf. It is also the choice of Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn `Uthaymin, and the verdict of the Permanent Committee.
- Intercourse with a menstruating woman if menstrual blood seizes but before ritual washing
It is haram to have sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman if her menstrual blood seizes but she is yet to wash for purity. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Zufar from the Hanafis. Divorcing a menstruating woman
- The ruling of divorcing a menstruating woman
It is haram to divorce a menstruating woman. [238] To be discussed thoroughly in the book of divorce, Allah willing.
- The validity of a divorce issued to a menstruating woman
A divorce issued to a menstruating woman is valid and takes effect. [239] ibid
- The ruling of Khul` for a menstruating woman
It is permissible to have khul` during the menstruation cycle and it takes effect. [240] ibid Cooking and baking for a menstruating woman
The menstruating woman is not prohibited from cooking and baking, nor is she from placing her hand in any liquids. Consensus has been quoted over this by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari and al-Nawawi. Menstruation delay medication
It is permissible to take medication to delay menstruation as long as there is no harm in doing so. [241] In al-Hattab’s Mawahib al-Jalil (538/1), it states: “Ibn Rushd said: ‘Malik was asked about the woman who fears the early start of her cycle; is it permissible for her to brew a drink that delays it? He said: ‘This is not correct’, and he disliked it.’ Ibn Rushd said: ‘He disliked it fearing this will cause her harm in her body.’” This has been explicitly mentioned by Hanbali jurists, and it is the choice of Ibn Baz.


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