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Section III: How to Perform Ritual Washing

Firstly: The Obligations of Ritual Washing Intention
From the obligations of washing is the intention. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. Water reaching all the body
Water must reach every part of the body as one of the obligations of washing. Consensus has been quoted over this by: Ibn Juzayy, al-`Ayni, and al-San`ani. Gurgling and sniffing up water
Gurgling and sniffing water up the nose are from the obligations of washing. This is the position of the Hanafis and Hanbalis, and it is the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin. Covering the `awrah from others
Covering one’s `awrah is a general obligation, especially to be kept in mind during washing, since it is a situation where one must do it to fulfil the conditions of washing. Consensus has been quoted on covering the `awrah by: al-Jassas, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Rushd the grandson, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Rajab.
Secondly: The Sunan of Washing and its Etiquettes Tasmiyah
It is mustahabb to say the basmalah before washing. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, and a narration from the Hanbalis. Washing the hands thrice
It is sunnah to wash the hands three times, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Removing filth from the private parts
It is sunnah to start by removing filth from the private parts, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Ablution
It is a sunnah to perform ablution within washing, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- The removal of minor hadath from washing to remove major hadath
Whoever washes with the intention of removing major hadath has also removed major hadath, even if they did not perform ablution, or they did not intend to remove minor hadath. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, and the most correct position among Shafi`is. Pouring water over the head thrice
It is sunnah to pour water over the head three times when washing, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence, and it is the choice of Ibn Hazm.
- Pouring water over the rest of the body thrice
It is not mustahabb to pour water over the rest of the body other than the head. [211] Being conservative with water is something the one washing should be aware of. This is the most common position among Malikis and a narration from Ahmad. It is also the choice of al-Khirqi, Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Zarkashi, Ibn Rajab, al-Sa`di, and Ibn Baz. Allowing water to flow through the hair
It is sunnah to allow water to flow through the hair when washing, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- The ruling of undoing plaits when washing due to janabah and menstruation
- The ruling of undoing plaits when washing due to janabah
It is not wajib for the woman to undo her plaits when washing due to janabah. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- The ruling of undoing plaits when washing due to menstruation
It is not wajib for the woman to undo her plaits when washing due to menstruation. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is. Starting with the right side
It is mustahabb to start with the right side of the body when washing, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Massaging the body
It is sunnah to massage the body as it is washed, and this is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. Ordering the body parts
It is not wajib to order the body parts when washing, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [212] There is a narration among Hanbalis that starting the wash with gurgling and sniffing up water is obligatory. Following this, order must be adhered to on doing those two acts first then washing the rest of the body. Continuity in washing
Scholars have differed over the ruling of continuity in washing according to two views:
The first: is that it is not wajib. This is the position of the majority: [213] The majority of jurists view that continuity in washing – following up one body part with the next – as sunnah. Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
The second: is that it is wajib, and this is the position of the Malikis, a position among Shafi`is, a narration among Hanbalis, and the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.


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