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Section III: Obligations of Ablution

Firstly: Washing the Face
1. The ruling of washing the face
Washing the face is one of the obligations of ablution. Consensus over this matter has been narrated by: al-Tahawi, al-Mawardi, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Qudamah, and al-Nawawi.
2. The boundaries of what is defined as the face
The face is that through which muwajahah (facing) is established.
Its boundaries horizontally: everything between the roots of the ears.
Its boundaries vertically: everything between where the hairline usually grows and the bottom of the chin.
3. The early sideburns
The early sideburns [138] What is meant by the early sideburns here is the hair growing at the same level as the ears, between the temples and the cheeks. It is also described as the hair growing on the bone in front of the ears. It is normally the first part that grows of a male adolescent's beard. are a part of the face, and must be washed with it. This is the opinion of the majority: the Hanafi, Shafi`i, and Hanbali mainstream opinions. It is also an opinion among the Malikis, chosen by Ibn `Abd al-Barr.
4. The ruling of washing the beard
If the beard is thin, enough to show the skin, then its external and internal (underneath it) must be washed. If it is thick, its external must be washed, and this is a matter of consensus among the four schools of jurisprudence, [139] The Shafi`is took as exception the hairs of the eyelashes, the eyebrows, the moustache, the early sideburns, and the soul patch. For them, both their exterior and interior must be washed, its hair and the skin underneath, regardless of the thickness of the hair. This is due to the hair normally being thin in the aforementioned sections, and only rarely thick, so it did not have its own ruling. It was also mentioned that it is not obligatory to wash the interior of a thick soul patch and its skin, as is the case for a thick beard. A third narration is that it is obligatory to wash both its inward and outward if its hair does not connect to that of the beard. and the vast majority of scholars from the Companions and the Followers opine this.
5. The ruling of washing the lengthy part of the beard [140] That which extends from the beard is defined as the beard hair which escapes the boundaries of the face in length and/or width.
The scholars have differed over the ruling of lengthy part that extends from the beard according to a few opinions, the strongest of which are two:
The first: is that it is wajib to wash the external of that which extends from the beard, and this is the opinion of the majority: Malikis, the correct opinion of the Shafi`is, and the Hanbalis.
The second: is that it is not wajib to wash the external of that which extends from the beard, and this is the opinion of the Hanafis, one opinion among the Shafi`is, and a narration from Imam Ahmad.
6. Washing some of the face
Washing some of the face is not sufficient, and consensus has been narrated regarding this by al-Tahawi, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, and al-Nawawi.
7. The ruling of gurgling (madmadah) and sniffing up water (istinshaq)
Gurgling and sniffing up water are both wajib in performing ablution, and this is the position of the Hanbalis. A group of the righteous predecessors also opined this, and it is the choice of some Zahiris, as well as Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, al-Albani, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
8. The description of gurgling and sniffing up water
The sunnah in gurgling and sniffing up water is that they are performed through the same scoop of water. The one performing ablution would scoop water into the hollow of his hand to gurgle therefrom, then he would inhale. He would then do the same with another scoop, and finally a third. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and an opinion among the Malikis. It is also chosen by al-Maziri, Ibn Rushd the grandfather, [141] Nicknamed so as he is the grandfather of Ibn Rushd, the known philosopher. Ibn Daqiq al-`Id, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Secondly: Washing the Hands until the Elbows
1. The ruling of washing the hands until the elbows
Washing the hands until the elbows is an obligation from the obligations of ablution. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by: Imam al-Shafi`i, al-Tabari, Ibn al-Mundhir, al-Tahawi, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Rushd, and al-Nawawi.
2. The elbows being included in washing
The elbows must be washed along with the rest of the forearms and hands, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
3. Washing an extra hand and the like is wajib, for those who have them, to wash an extra hand or finger and their like within the wajib range of washing. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
4. The ruling of the ablution of one who has dirt under his fingernails preventing water reaching there
A small amount of dirt [142] Ibn Taymiyyah said: “Likewise is any small amount of a substance which prevented the reaching of water to the skin regardless of what it is, like blood or paste.” Al-Fatawa al-Kubra (303/5) underneath the fingernails does not affect the validity of the ablution. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, [143] Hanafis, according to our knowledge, have not differed between a small and a large amount. Malikis, Hanbalis, and al-Ghazali from among the Shafi`is.
Thirdly: Wiping the Head
1. The ruling of wiping over the head
Wiping over the head is one of the obligations of ablution as an overall position. [144] There is difference over whether wiping some of the head suffices or not. Consensus has been quoted by al-Mawardi, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Qudamah, al-Qurtubi, and al-Nawawi.
2. The ruling of wiping over all of the head
It is wajib to wipe over all of the head, and this is the most common position among the Malikis, the correct opinion among the Hanbalis, al-Muzani among the Shafi`is, and some Zahiris. It is also the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Albani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
3. Wiping the long hair that falls around the head
It is not wajib to wipe over the long hair which falls around the head, and wiping it instead of the head does not suffice, [145] If a person wipes what falls around the head of hair but did not wipe the head itself, this does not suffice them. regardless whether one wraps it up or lets it loose. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
4. The number of wipes over the head
The head is wiped only once in ablution, and repetition is not legislated. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, and Hanbalis.
5. How to wipe the head
To wipe over one's head is to go over the head with the hands from its front, until all the way to the top of the neck, then back again – from the top of the neck until the front of the head. The majority have explicitly mentioned this: Malikis, Shafi`is, [146] Al-Nawawi said: “Our companions said: ‘coming back with the hands is mustahabb for one who has hair that is not plaited. As for one who has no hair on his head and has his hair in plaits, then coming back is not mustahabb since it is of no benefit.’” Sharh al-Nawawi `ala Muslim (123/3) and Hanbalis.
6. The ruling of wiping the ears
Scholars have differed over the ruling of wiping the ears according to two views: [147] Scholars are in consensus over the legislation of wiping the ears; this is quoted by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and al-Nawawi. However, wiping the ears does not suffice one from wiping over the head, and this is also by consensus of the scholars, as mentioned by al-Maziri.
The first: is that wiping over the ears is one of the sunan of ablution, and this is the position of the majority: Hanafis, the common opinion among the Malikis, and Shafi`is.
The second: is that it is wajib to wipe over the ears, their external and internal. This is the position of the Hanbalis, some Malikis, Ishaq ibn Rahawayh, as well as being the choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
7. How to wipe the ears
The sunnah when wiping the ears is to insert the index fingers in the earhole, [148] Simakh in Arabic is the earhole. and wipe behind the ears with the thumbs. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
8. The ruling of wiping the ears and the head with the same water
It is sunnah to wipe over the ears and the head with the same water. This is the position of the Hanafis, a narration from Ahmad, al-Thawri, and is narrated from a group from the Salaf. It is also the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-San`ani, Ibn Baz, al-Albani, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
9. Wiping over the turban
It is permissible to wipe over the turban instead of wiping the head. This is the most common position of the Hanbalis, the position of the Zahiris, and the majority of the Companions and the Followers held this view. It is also the choice of Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shawkani, al-Shinqiti, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
10. The ruling of wiping over a turban without a tress [149] Such that, after tying the turban, there hangs a visible tail at the end of it that is often rested on either shoulder. This is known as Arabic as a turban that is dhat dhu'abah – literally: with a tail. One that does not have this type of tail is known as samma', and this is the type for which the ruling is considered here.
It is not a condition for the turban that is wiped over that it has a tress or goes under the jaw. [150] If a turban goes around the head, underneath the jaw, it is known as muhannakah. This is the position of the Zahiris, and a position among the Hanbalis that is chosen by Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn `Uthaymin.
11. The ruling of wearing the turban upon a state of purity
It is not a condition for one to be in a state of purity before wearing a turban. This is the position of the Zahiris, a narration from Ahmad, and the position of some of the Salaf. It is also the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn `Uthaymin.
12. Timing of wiping over the turban
There is no time limitation for wiping over the turban. This is the position of the Zahiris and the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
13. Wiping over the veil [151] Khimar in Arabic, from the meaning of cover, and is what the woman uses to cover her head. It is for the woman what the turban is for the man.
Scholars have differed over the ruling of wiping over the veil according to two views:
The first: is that it is not permissible for the woman to wipe over her veil, and this is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, and a narration among Hanbalis, as well the position of some of the Salaf.
The second: is that it is permissible for a woman to wipe over her veil. This is the position of the Hanbalis, Zahiris, some of the Salaf, and the choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
14. Wiping over qalanis [152] Qalanis in Arabic is the plural of qalansuwah, and it is a hat around which the turban is wrapped. Some scholars – like Ibn `Uthaymin – have ruled as an exception to this anything that is difficult to take off, in which case it is wiped over instead.
Wiping over qalanis is invalid, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Fourthly: Washing the Feet
Washing the feet until the ankles [153] The ankles are the protruding bones at either side of the joint between the shin and the foot. is an obligation of ablution. Consensus [154] Difference of opinion that is not relied upon has been narrated over wiping the heat and washing them. has been quoted on this matter by: Ibn al-Mundhir, al-Mawardi, and al-Nawawi.
Fifthly: Order in Ablution [155] What is meant by order here is to purify oneself in the order commanded by Allah, exalted; starting by the face, then the hands until the elbows, then wiping the head, then washing the feet.
Performing ablution in its correct order is one of the conditions for its validity. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and the most common opinion among the Malikis. It is also the choice of Ibn Hazm, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Sixthly: Continuity [156] Continuity here is to wash one body part straight after the other. It is referred to in Arabic as muwalah. in the Acts of Ablution
1. The ruling of continuity in the acts of ablution
Continuity in the acts of ablution is one of the conditions of its validity. This is the most common position of the Malikis, [157] They said it falls as a condition with a valid excuse. the position of the Hanbalis, and the choice of al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
2. Minimal breaking
If breaking between the different acts of ablution is minimal and short, then it does not harm its validity. Consensus has been quoted on this matter by: Abu Hamid, al-Mahamili, and al-Nawawi.
3. The limit of continuity
The limit of continuity is defined as the time it would take for the previously washed body to dry before washing the next one in standard, normal conditions. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


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