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Section I: Pelting the Jamarat

Firstly: The Meaning of Pelting the Jamarat
Linguistically, jimar is the plural of jamrah, meaning pebbles. The term is used to refer to the place where pebbles are thrown in Mina, either because pebbles are thrown there or because it is a gathering of pebbles thrown at it.
Technically, pelting the Jamarat is casting a specific number of pebbles at a specific time and place.
Secondly: Types of Jamarat
Three types of Jamarat are pelted:
The First Jamrah, also called al-Sughra (the smallest) or al-Dunya (the closest). It is the first Jamrah after Masjid al-Kheef in Mina. It is called al-Dunya because it is the closest to Masjid al-Kheef.
The Second Jamrah, which is called al-Wusta (the middlemost), which is after the first and before Jamrat al-`Aqabah.
Jamrat al-`Aqabah, which is also called al-Jamrah al-Kubra. It is at the end of Mina in the direction of Mecca. It is not in Mina.
Thirdly: The Wisdom behind Pelting
1. Establishing the remembrance of Allah Mighty and Majestic
2. Emulating Ibrahim in his enmity toward the devil, his pelting him, and his lack of subordination to him.
Fourthly: The Ruling of Pelting the Jamarat
Pelting the Jamarat is wajib in Hajj. This is the chosen position of al-Kasani, al-Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyyah, and al-Shinqiti.
Fifthly: Conditions for Pelting
1. Using stones
It is a condition that one use stones when pelting. Throwing anything referred to as pebbles (i.e. small rocks) is sufficient. It is not valid to throw clay, metal, or soil. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.


2. A specific number
The number of pebbles
The number of pebbles for each Jamrah is seven. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Exhausting all pebbles
It is wajib to exhaust the total number of pebbles for each Jamrah. This is the official position of the Maliki school, one narration from Ahmad, and the position of al-Awza`i, al-Layth, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
3. Throwing the seven pebbles one at a time
It is a condition that one pelt each Jamrah with seven pebbles, one at a time. If one throws two or seven pebbles at a single time, it counts as one pebble and one must throw six more. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


4. Cast pebbles must land within the basin
It is a condition that pebbles must land in the Jamrah where pebbles pile up. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.


5. The one throwing must intend that the pebbles land there by their own doing
It is a condition that the one throwing must intend the target, and that the pebbles land within the proper place by one’s own doing. If someone hits another’s hand, causing their pebble to fly and hit the target, this does not count. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


6. Pebbles must be thrown, not put down
It is a condition that pebbles be thrown, not merely put down. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.


7. Pelting in order during the Days of Tashreeq
It is a condition that one pelt the three Jamarat in order: pelting al-Jamrah al-Sughra (closest to Masjid al-Kheef) first, followed by al-Wusta, then Jamrat al-`Aqabah. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.


8. Pelting at the proper time
Check for details in the later sections on when to pelt on the Day of Eid al-Adha and when to pelt during the Days of Tashreeq.
Sixthly: Sunnah Acts Related to Pelting
1. The sunnah of where to stand when pelting Jamrat al-`Aqabah
It is best that one pelting Jamrat al-`Aqabah stand within the valley with Mina on their right and Mecca on their left. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is (according to the sound position), and a group of the Salaf. This is the chosen position of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Pelting Jamrat al-`Aqabah from other directions
It is permissible to pelt Jamrat al-`Aqabah from any direction. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis (according to the clearest position), and Hanbalis. Al-Shafi`i explicitly mentioned it as well.


2. Pelting with rocks that could be used in a slingshot
It is mustahabb to pelt with rocks like those used in a slingshot. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. It is the position of the majority of scholars of the Salaf and Khalaf.


3. Non-interruption of the seven acts of pelting
Not interrupting the seven acts of pelting is mustahabb, not a condition. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [1039] Hanbalis do not explicitly mention that it is mustahabb, but this can be understood from what they say. Some of them have explicitly mentioned that it is not wajib.


4. Pebbles not previously thrown
It is mustahabb that the pebbles not have been already thrown. If one throws a used pebble, it counts. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is. It is also one position amongst Hanbalis.


5. Purity of the pebbles
It is mustahabb to throw pebbles that are pure. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, and one position amongst Hanbalis.
The ruling of washing the pebbles
It is not mustahabb to wash the pebbles unless one sees actual filth on it and cannot find anything else to use, in which case the filth is washed off so that one’s hands and garments do not become affected by it. This is the official position of the Maliki school, the sound position according to Hanbalis, and the position of a group of scholars as well as Ibn al-Mundhir. This is the chosen position of al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, Ibn `Uthaymin, and al-Albani.


6. Saying Allahu Akbar with each throw
It is mustahabb to say Allahu Akbar every time one casts a pebble. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
The ruling of not saying Allahu Akbar when throwing
Nothing is due of one who does not say Allahu Akbar when pelting. Consensus on this was related by al-Qadi `Iyad and Ibn Hajar.


7. Ceasing talbiyah upon casting the first pebble at Jamrat al-`Aqabah on the Day of Eid al-Adha
It is mustahabb to cease talbiyah with the first pebble cast at Jamrat al-`Aqabah. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf.
8. Supplicating at length after pelting Jamrat al-Sughra and Jamrat al-Wusta
It is mustahabb to stop and supplicate after every act pelting that is followed by another act of pelting. One stops to supplicate at length after pelting Jamrat al-Sughra and Jamrat al-Wusta. This supplication is mustahabb by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Seventhly: Pelting on the Day of Eid al-Adha
One only pelts Jamrat al-`Aqabah and no others on the Day of Eid al-Adha. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir and Ibn `Abd al-Barr.
Eighthly: When to Pelt on the Day of Eid al-Adha
The time for pelting Jamrat al-`Aqabah starts when half the night of Eid al-Adha has passed. It is sunnah to pelt after sunrise. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools as well as a group of the Salaf. This is the chosen position of by Ibn Baz.
Ninthly: Pelting the Jamarat at Night
It is permissible for one who did not pelt the Jamarat during the day to pelt them at night. The time for pelting for each day extends to the dawn of the following day. This is the position of the Hanafi school and one position amongst Shafi`is. This is the chosen position of Ibn al-Mundhir, al-Nawawi, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Tenthly: Selecting Pebbles for Pelting
It is permissible to select pebbles from anywhere. Wherever one picks them up from is sufficient. However, they are of two positons regarding where it is mustahabb to pick the pebbles from:
The first position: It is mustahabb to pick the pebbles from Muzdalifah. This is the position of the Maliki and Shafi`i schools. Some of the Salaf held this position as well.
The second position: One picks them from Muzdalifah, from the path there, or from anywhere else. This is the position of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools. Imam Malik explicitly mentioned this position. This is the chosen position of Ibn al-Mundhir. It was deemed correct by Shams al-Din Ibn Qudamah.
Eleventhly: Assigning Another to Pelt on One’s Behalf
1. The ruling of one with a valid excuse assigning another to pelt on their behalf
It is wajib for one who cannot pelt on their own behalf due to a condition that they do not expect to subside before the time for pelting expires to assign someone else to pelt on their behalf. [1040] Whoever assigns someone else to pelt on their behalf due to a Sharia-compliant excuse may not travel before their representative performs the act of pelting. If such a person departs on the Day of Eid al-Adha and does not spend the nights of the eleventh and twelfth in Mina, then, in addition to repentance, three expiations of blood are due: for not spending the night in Mina, for not pelting the Jamarat, and for omitting the Farewell Circumambulation. This holds even if they circumambulate before leaving because it was not performed during its prescribed time, as the Farewell Circumambulation is performed after pelting the Jamarat. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.


2. Is it a condition that the representative have pelted on their own behalf first?
It is a condition that the representative have pelted on their own behalf before pelting on behalf their mandator. [1041] Ibn Baz says: “It is permissible for the representative to pelt each of the three Jamarat on their own behalf then on behalf of the one who assigned them without moving from their place. It is not wajib for them to pelt all three Jamarat on their own behalf and then return and pelt on behalf of the one who assigned them. This is the strongest of two positions of scholars.” (Majmu` Fatawa Ibn Baz, 16/86) This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools. It is also the fatwa of the Permanent Council.


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