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Section II: Geographical Mawaqeet

Preamble: Categories of People with Respect to Ihram
1. Those from faraway lands, meaning those who live beyond the mawaqeet.
2. Those living within the limits, meaning those who live between a meeqat and the Sacred Precinct.
3. Meccans, meaning those living in Mecca or the Sacred Precinct. Firstly: The Meeqat of Those from Faraway Lands and their Rulings
1. The definition of those from faraway lands
One living in faraway lands is someone whose residence is beyond the area of the mawaqeet.
2. The mawaqeet of those from faraway lands
The mawaqeet of faraway lands differ depending on the direction relative to the Sacred Precinct, each direction having a specific meeqat. Scholars identify six mawaqeet:
· Dhu al-Hulayfah is the meeqat of the people of Medina and others who pass through it. It is a known location at the start of the road from Medina to Mecca. It is about six Islamic miles (approximately 13 km) from Medina and about 200 miles from Mecca (approximately 408 km). It is the farthest meeqat from Mecca and is now known as Abar `Ali. The Prophet ﷺ entered into ihram for the Farewell Pilgrimage from this location.
· Al-Juhfah is the meeqat of those from the Levant and from its direction, including those from Egypt, Morocco, and beyond. It is a large village approximately 186 km from Mecca that is now non-existent and which almost no one knows. Hajjis now enter into ihram from Rabigh, which is slightly farther than al-Juhfah in the direction of the sea. Thus, one who enters into ihram from Rabigh has done so before the meeqat. It is said that performing ihram from it is more precautionary as the location of al-Juhfah is uncertain.
· Qarn al-Manazil (al-Sayl al-Kabir) is the meeqat of the people of Nejd. Qarn is the name of a mountain that overlooks `Arafah. It is sometimes called Qarn al-Mubarak. Between it and Mecca is about 40 Islamic miles (approximately 78 km). It is the closest of the mawaqeet to Mecca.
· Yalamlam is the meeqat of the people of Yemen and Tihamah. Yalamlam is one of the mountains of Tihamah, approximately 120 km south of Mecca.
· Dhat `Irq is the meeqat of the people of Iraq and all others from the East. It is a village 42 Islamic miles (approximately 100 km), but it is now a ghost town.
Consensus on the above mawaqeet was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Qudamah, and al-Nawawi
· Al-`Aqiq is a valley beyond Dhat `Irq towards the east. It is to the left of one travelling from Iraq to Mecca. It is overlooked by the mountain of `Irq.
Scholars are of two positions regarding entering into ihram from al-`Aqiq:
The first position: That it is only mustahabb to enter into ihram from Dhat `Irq, which occurs after al-`Aqiq. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, and Hanbalis.
The second position: It is mustahabb to enter into ihram from al-`Aqiq for those coming from the East. This is the position of the Shafi`i school, some Hanafis, and some of the Salaf. Ibn al-Mundhir and Ibn `Abd al-Barr consider it a good position.
3. Entering into ihram from the mawaqeet for those who pass through them intending religious rites
It is wajib to perform ihram from the meeqat for anyone passing through them who intends one of two religious rites: Hajj or `umrah. Consensus on this was related by al-Nawawi and al-Zayla`i.
4. Arriving by land, sea, or air without passing through a specific meeqat
One who follows a path – whether by land or sea [962] This also applies to arriving by air as per the decision of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy. Note: One who does not have the garments of ihram with him on the airplane may not delay ihram until arriving in Jeddah. Rather, it is wajib for him to enter into ihram while wearing trousers, and he must uncover his head. Upon arriving in Jeddah, he should buy a sarong and remove his shirt. He must offer expiation for wearing a shirt, which is to feed six poor people, each being due half a sa` of dates, rice, or another of the land’s staple foods. He may also fast three days or slaughter a sheep or goat. This is the decision of the Fiqh Council of the Muslim World League. – that does not pass through a specific meeqat, uses their judgment and enters into ihram when parallel to any of the mawaqeet. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
5. Not passing through a specific meeqat while unsure when one is parallel to a meeqat
One who follows a path – whether by land or sea [963] This also applies to arriving by air as per the decision of the International Islamic Fiqh Academy. Note: One who does not have the garments of ihram with him on the airplane may not delay ihram until arriving in Jeddah. Rather, it is wajib for him to enter into ihram while wearing trousers, and he must uncover his head. Upon arriving in Jeddah, he should buy a sarong and remove his shirt. He must offer expiation for wearing a shirt, which is to feed six poor people, each being due half a sa` of dates, rice, or another of the land’s staple foods. He may also fast three days or slaughter a sheep or goat. This is the decision of the Fiqh Council of the Muslim World League. – that does not pass through a specific meeqat but is unsure when they are parallel to a meeqat and does not find someone to guide them must take precautions and enter into ihram by an amount of time that most probably occurs before running parallel to it. They may not delay entering into ihram. This is the fatwa of the Islamic International Fiqh Academy and Ibn Baz.
6. Is Jeddah a meeqat?
Jeddah is not a meeqat. It is not permissible for anyone to pass their meeqat and enter into ihram from Jeddah unless they do not run parallel to a meeqat before it, in which case they enter into ihram in Jeddah. This is like those who arrive in Jeddah by sea from the area of Sudan parallel to it, for they do not pass by any meeqat prior to it. This is the position of choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin. It is the fatwa of the Permanent Council and the decision of the Council of Senior Scholars and the Islamic International Fiqh Academy.
7. Passing the meeqat without ihram and without returning to it
Whoever intends the rites of Hajj or `umrah and passes the meeqat without entering into ihram must return to it and enter ihram there. If they do not return, they are sinful and must expiate with blood. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
8. Passing the meeqat without ihram then returning to it and entering ihram
Whoever passes the meeqat without entering into ihram and then returns to it and performs ihram does not expiate with blood. Consensus on this was related by al-Kasa’i, Ibn Qudamah, and Shams al-Din Ibn Qudamah.
9. Entering into ihram after the meeqat then returning to it
Whoever enters into ihram after the meeqat then returns to it must still expiate with blood. This the position of the Maliki and Hanbali schools, Zufar of the Hanafi school, and Ibn al-Mubarak. It is the position of choice of al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
10. Passing the meeqat without intending rites then later intending them
If one passes the meeqat without intending the performance of rites and then intends them later, then they enter into ihram from where they are. This is the position of the Maliki and Shafi`i schools, Ibn Hajar, and al-Shawkani. It is the position of choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
11. Passing the meeqat for a reason unrelated to rites
The ruling of ihram when passing the meeqat and remaining outside of the Sacred Precinct for a purpose unrelated to rites
Whoever passes the meeqat not intending to perform rites or to enter the Sacred Precinct is not obliged to enter into ihram. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Qudamah.
The ruling of ihram when passing the meeqat into Mecca for a purpose unrelated to rites
Entering into ihram is not wajib for one who passes the meeqat and enters Mecca for a purpose unrelated to the performance of rites. This is the position of the Shafi`i [964] According to most Shafi`is, it is mustahabb to enter into ihram for Hajj during its months if the traveller can make it. Otherwise, they enter into ihram for `umrah if they have performed the Islamic obligation of Hajj and `umrah. and Zahiri schools as well as a narration from Ahmad. It is the position of a group of the Salaf. It is also the apparent meaning of al-Bukhari’s categorization. It is the position of choice of Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shinqiti, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
12. Passing two mawaqeet
It is not permissible for one intending rites to pass over the first meeqat they come by until they reach another meeqat, whether the latter is closer or farther from Mecca. This is like people from Medina not performing ihram at Dhu al-Hulayfah and instead entering it at al-Juhfah. Similarly, it is like people from the Levant bypassing ihram at al-Juhfah to perform it at Dhu al-Hulayfah. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis [965] Malikis make one exception: if the traveller will pass by their default meeqat another time. This is like an Egyptian who passes by Dhu al-Hulayfah, as when they go to Mecca, they will pass by their default meeqat, al-Juhfah, or run parallel to it. , Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf.
13. The ruling of entering into ihram before passing the geographical mawaqeet
It is permissible to enter into ihram before passing the geographical mawaqeet, though doing so is makruh. This is the position of the Maliki and Hanbali schools. It is the position of choice of Ibn Baz [966] Ibn Baz says: “Ihram before the meeqat is permissible though makruh, and effected. If it is done due to taking care and being precautionary, then it is not makruh, for nothing is makruh when done to fulfill a wajib act.” (Majmu` Fatawa Ibn Baz, 17/48) and Ibn `Uthaymin.
14. Menstruation and post-partum bleeding do not prevent a woman from ihram at the meeqat
It is not permissible for a woman intending rites to pass the meeqat without ihram even if she is menstruating. Rather, she must enter into ihram, and her ihram is valid. Consensus on this was related by Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Rajab.
Secondly: The Meeqat of Those Living within its Limits
1. The definition of those living within its limits
Those living within its limits are those who live between the mawaqeet and the Sacred Precinct, like the residents of Jeddah, Qudaid, `Usfan, Marr al-Zahran, Bahrah, and Umm al-Salam.
2. The place of ihram for those living within its limits
Whoever resides permanently or temporarily between the mawaqeet and the Sacred Precinct, their meeqat is where they are. If one proceeds further, one is sinful and must expiate with blood. [967] If they return, then expiation by blood is no longer required, even if they had entered into ihram. This is according to Shafi`is, in contrast to Malikis and Hanbalis who hold that they must expiate with blood as long as they had entered into ihram. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
Thirdly: The Meeqat of Meccans (Residents of the Sacred Precinct)
1. The definition of a Meccan
A Meccan is one who is in the Sacred Precinct upon intending the performance of rites, be they a resident or just passing through.
2. The meeqat of a Meccan with respect to Hajj
Whoever resides in Mecca or the Sacred Precinct enters into ihram from their residence whether they are a permanent resident or a visitor. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, and al-Nawawi.
3. The meeqat of a Meccan with respect to `umrah
The meeqat of a Meccan with respect to `umrah is any area outside the Sacred Precinct that they desire. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.



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