Firstly: Removing Najasah Using Water The Ruling of Removing Najasah with Water
Scholars have differed over the necessity of having water when removing najasah according to two views:
The first: is that it is a condition to use water when removing najasah. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Zufar and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan among the Hanafis.
The second: is that it is not a condition to use water to remove najasah. This is the position of the Hanafis, a narration from Ahmad, the position of Dawud al-Zahiri, and the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn `Uthaymin. Purifying Najis Water
Whenever and however the denaturing of najis water disappears,  Discussed thoroughly in the Chapter of Water. it becomes pure, even through the use of modern means. Repetition in Washing when Removing Najasah
There is no particular number of washes necessary for najasah to be completely removed.  Whenever there is a specific amount mentioned in the sources however, this is an exception. Examples of this is purifying a vessel wherein a dog lapped its water, where seven washes are necessary, one of which with soil, and istinja’ with no less than three stones, and washing the hands three times after waking up before placing them in a vessel. Whenever the najasah is gone, its ruling is likewise gone. If the najasah is not removed after the first wash, then they keep increasing until it is. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis,  Najasah for the Hanafis is of two types, visible and invisible. As for the visible type, its removal is when it can no longer be seen, and as for the invisible, its removal is when one believes there to be high chances of it having been removed. They estimated this amount by three times, as after that there is high chance of the najasah having disappeared after that many times of washing. Malikis, Shafi`is, and a narration from Ahmad. Purifying the Vessel Whence a Dog Lapped
The vessel where a dog has lapped  Walagh the verb has been discussed in removing najasah. Wulugh is the root word. is washed seven times, the first time with soil.  Discussed thoroughly in the section of removing the najasah of a dog. What is Pardoned and Overlooked of Najasah
- The trace of najasah
It is wajib to remove the physical najis substance, and the smell and colour are overlooked if it is difficult to remove them, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
- Small amounts of najasah
All small amounts of najasah are pardoned, and this is the position of the Hanafis,  But the major najasah is pardoned only if it is less than a dirham in size for them. an opinion among the Hanbalis, the position of some of the Salaf, and the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn `Uthaymin.
- The standard according to which a little najasah is considered so
The standard that dictates a little najasah that can be overlooked is cultural norms. This is what the average person would consider minor and non-problematic. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn `Uthaymin, and the Permanent Committee.
Secondly: Alteration (Istihalah) Defining Alteration
Alteration linguistically: is when a thing changes from its nature.
Alteration technically: is the changing of a najis substance by itself or through some means. The Purification of a Najis Substance through Alteration
If the najis substance alters to another substance,  Examples of this are dung that turns to ashes after burning, and najis oil becoming soap, the mud of sewers when it dries and its effects disappear, and a najasah that is buried in the earth and its effects disappearing by the passing of time. it has become pure through alteration. This is the position of the Hanafis, Malikis, a narration from Ahmad, the choice of Ibn Hazm, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, the verdict of the Permanent Committee, and the view of the majority of scholars. The Ruling of Alcohol if it Turns to Vinegar Naturally
Alcohol becomes pure if it naturally changes into vinegar, for those who view it as najis originally. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. The Ruling of Alcohol if it Turns to Vinegar Artificially
Alcohol does not become pure if it is artificially changed into vinegar, for those who view it as najis originally. It would be thence haram to use. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, the most common opinion narrated from Malik, the position of some of the Salaf, chosen by Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim, and it is the verdict of the Permanent Committee on the matter, as well as it being the view of the majority of scholars. The Ruling of Alcohol if it Turns to Vinegar by its Transportation
Scholars have differed over whether alcohol becomes pure after it being moved, as in from under shade to the sun or vice versa according to many views, the strongest of which are two:
The first: If alcohol turns into vinegar due to moving from shade to sunlight or the opposite, then it becomes pure. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, and the most correct opinion among Shafi`is.
The second: If alcohol turns into vinegar due to moving from shade to sunlight or the opposite, then it does not become pure. This is the position of the Hanbalis and Ibn Taymiyyah.