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Section II: The Traveller

Firstly: The Ruling of the Traveller Breaking his Fast
It is permissible for the traveller to break his fast, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Secondly: The Ruling of the Traveller Breaking his Fast when Fasting is Comfortable
If fasting presents no difficulty for the traveller, such that fasting or not makes no difference for him, then the scholars have differed over whether keeping his fast is better or breaking it. This is according to two views:
The first: is that fasting is better for him. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi`is, and the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
The second: is that not fasting is better for him, and this is the position of the Hanbalis, a group of the Salaf, and the position of Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Baz.
Thirdly: The Ruling of the Fast of a Traveller for Whom it is Difficult
If fasting is difficult for the traveller such that breaking it would be easier for him, then breaking his fast is more virtuous. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Fourthly: The Stay of a Traveller which Removes his Concession
If a traveller remains in a place for more than four days, then breaking his fast is no longer permissible. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
Fifthly: The Ruling of the Fast of the Constant Traveller
Breaking the fast is permissible for those whose travel is constant – like aeroplane pilots, truck drivers, and ship captains – and he has a residence which he lives in. This is the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Sixthly: The Traveller Making up Days where he Broke his Fast
If the traveller breaks his fast on some days, he must make them up. Consensus has been quoted on this by: Ibn Hazm, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Qudamah, and Ibn Hajar al-Haytami.
Seventhly: The Ruling of Ramadan Entering while a Person is Travelling
If Ramadan enters while a person is in a state of travel, he may break his fast. Consensus has been quoted on this by Ibn Hazm and Ibn Qudamah.
Eighthly: Travelling at Night during Ramadan
If a person travels at night in the month of Ramadan, leaving his town before fajr, then he may not fast the morn of the night that he left in and what follows it. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence and the position of the majority of scholars.
Ninthly: The Ruling of a Person Travelling in the Days of Ramadan
If a person travels in Ramadan during its day leaving his town, then he may not fast. This is the position of the Hanbalis, al-Muzani from the Shafi`is, and a group of the Salaf. It is the choice of Ibn al-Mundhir and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Tenthly: The Ruling of Withholding for the Rest of the Day if a Traveller Reaches his Destination in the Day not Fasting
If the traveller arrives at his destination during the day in Ramadan while he isn't fasting, then the scholars have differed whether he should withhold for the rest of the day or not, and this is according to two views:
The first: is that he does not have to withhold the rest of the day. [798] He should not announce his eating and drinking, due to the reason of the concession being hidden. This is avoids bad expectations of him, as well as others taking him as a model. This is the position of the Malikis, Shafi`is, a narration among Hanbalis, and the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
The second: is that he must withhold. This is the position of the Hanafis, Hanbalis, a position among Shafi`is, the position of a group of the Salaf, and the choice of Ibn Baz.
Eleventhly: The Ruling of a Traveller Breaking his Fast if he is Using Comfortable Means of Travel
Breaking the fast is legislated for the traveller, regardless of how he is travelling and whether he finds difficulty in his travel or not. Ibn Taymiyyah has quoted consensus over this.


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