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Section II: Shrouding the Deceased

Firstly: The Ruling of Shrouding the Deceased
Shrouding the deceased Muslim is a communal obligation. This is the overall summary of the position. [670] The martyr is excepted, and the one murdered oppressively in retaliation. Consensus has been quoted over this matter by: Ibn Hazm, Ibn al-`Arabi, al-Qurtubi, al-Nawawi, and al-Mardawi.
Secondly: Those for Whom it is Wajib to Shroud if the Deceased had Wealth
If the deceased had sufficient money, then his shroud is bought from it. Consensus has been quoted over this by al-Nawawi and Ibn al-Qattan.
Thirdly: Those for Whom it is Wajib to Shroud if the Deceased had No Wealth
If the deceased had no money, then the responsibility for buying his shroud falls upon the one who would legally provide for them financially, whether that's a father, son, or master. [671] Discussion regarding the husband will follow shortly. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Fourthly: If the Deceased had No Wealth and No One Who Provided for Him Financially
In the case where the deceased does not have any wealth nor is there someone who legally had to provide for them financially, then the costs for the funeral and its preparations fall on the state's treasury. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Fifthly: The Obligation of Shrouding if the Treasury has No Wealth
The obligation for shrouding and preparing the deceased for burial falls upon the general Muslim public if there is no one to provide for him and the treasury had no wealth to spend on him. [672] Likewise, the one who dies in non-Muslim lands. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Sixthly: The Man Shrouding his Wife
Scholars differed over whether it is wajib for a man to shroud his wife according to two views:
The first: it is wajib for the man to shroud his wife, and this is the position of the Hanafis, the correct position among Shafi`is, a position among Malikis, and the choice of Inn `Uthaymin.
The second: is that it is wajib to shroud her from her own wealth. This is the position of the Malikis, Hanbalis, a position among Shafi`is, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan from the Hanafis, some of the Salaf, and the choice of Ibn Hazm.
Seventhly: The Wajib Part of the Shroud
Scholars have differed over what constitutes the necessary part for a shroud to be legally sufficient, and this is according to two views:
The first: is that the minimum necessary portion of the shroud is that which covers the `awrah. This is the more correct position among Shafi`is, one of the two known positions among Malikis, and the choice of Ibn `Abd al-Barr.
The second: is that its minimum is one shroud which covers the whole body. This is the position of the Hanbalis, one of the two known positions among Malikis, the position of al-San`ani, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Eighthly: The Mustahabb and Permissible in a Shroud
1. Shrouding the man in three shrouds
It is mustahabb that a man is wrapped in three shrouds that have no upper garment nor turban. This is the position of the Shafi`is, [673] For them, the deceased is shrouded in three wraps, one under-garment and three shrouds. Hanbalis, [674] For them, the deceased is wrapped in three white shrouds. Ibn Hazm, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
2. Shrouding the woman in five shrouds
It is mustahabb that a woman is wrapped in five shrouds by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [675] For Hanafis: the woman is wrapped in five shrouds: a chest cover, an under-garment, a head cover, an overall cover, and a cloth tied above her chest. For the Malikis, the woman is wrapped in an under-garment, two wraps, a chest wrap, and a head cover. There is no harm in increasing them to seven. In some Maliki texts, seven is in fact better. For Shafi`is: what is most correct is that the five are an under-garment, a chest wrap, a head wrap, and two wraps. This is also the position of some of the Salaf, and Ibn Hazm.
3. Shrouding in white
It is mustahabb that the shrouding cloth is white. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
4. Beautifying the shroud
It is mustahabb to make the shrouds beautiful. [676] Al-Nawawi said: “What is meant by beautification is its whiteness, cleanliness, and sufficient size, and not that it is expensive.” Al-Majmu` (197/5) This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence and the position of a group from the Salaf.
5. Shrouding in worn clothes
It is permissible to shroud in worn clothes. Consensus has been quoted on this by al-Nawawi and Ibn al-Mulaqqin.
Ninthly: The Makruh in Shrouding
1. Shrouding in silk
- Shrouding in silk for men
It is haram to shroud in silk for men. This is the position of the Shafi`is and Hanbalis.
- Shrouding in silk for women
Scholars have differed over the permissibility of shrouding a woman in silk over a number of views, the strongest of which are two:
The first: is that it is makruh for women to be shrouded in silk. This is the position of the Malikis, Shafi`is, a narration from Ahmad, the position of a group from the Salaf, the majority of scholars, and the choice of Ibn al-Mundhir.
The second: is that women can be shrouded in silk. This is the position of the Hanafis, Ibn Habib from the Malikis, a position among Hanbalis, and the choice of Ibn Hazm.
2. The makruh excess in shrouding
It is makruh that a man is shrouded in more than three wraps, and this is the position of the Hanbalis.
3. Ostentatiousness in the shroud
It is makruh that the shroud is excessively expensive or ostentatious. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
4. The shroud drenched in safflower or saffron
It is makruh that the shroud used is first covered or drenched in safflower [677] Muza`far is that cloth died by saffron. or saffron. [678] Mu`asfar is that cloth died by safflower, a summer plant used for red die, used for silk and its like. This is the position of the majority: Hanafis, [679] Hanafis said: it is makruh for men but not women. Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
5. Shrouding in wool or animal hair
It is makruh to shroud in wool or animal hair while other materials are available. This is the position of the Hanafis and Hanbalis.
Tenthly: The Ruling of Perfuming the Deceased
1. The ruling of incensing the shroud
It is mustahabb to incense the shroud. [680] Tajmir is incensing and perfuming. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
2. Embalming scent
An embalming scent [681] Hanut is an incense that is prepared especially for the deceased. All types of perfumes and musks prepared for the deceased to beautify his scent and dry his moistness may be considered hanut. is mustahabb for the deceased, regardless of their gender. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
3. Perfuming the one who died in the state of ihram
If the one who is in a state of ihram passes away then it is haram to perfume him. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and some of the Salaf. It is also the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin and al-Albani.
4. Perfuming the woman who passed away in her mourning period
It is not haram to perfume a woman who passed away while she was in her mourning period. [682] Scholars are in agreement over the necessity of ihdad (lack of beautification and perfuming for the widowed) during the mourning period of a valid marital contract, even if there was no consummation. There is difference among the scholars in the ihdad of the divorced minorly or majorly but still within her waiting period. This is the position of the Malikis, the correct position among Shafi`is, and the position of the Hanbalis.
Eleventhly: The Description of Shrouding
1. It is mustahabb to lay down and spread out the best and largest shroud, then the second be placed upon it, then the third. [683] He places hanut within it and between the wraps. Every time he lays down a shroud, he covers it with hanut. This is the position of the majority: Malikis, [684] Malikis mentioned this description but did not comment on its ruling. Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
2. The deceased is carried to the shrouds while covered up, then he is laid down upon them upon his back. The Shafi`is and Hanbalis have explicitly mentioned this.
3. A piece of cotton should be placed in camphor and embalming scents, then placed in the backside. [685] Above it, a cover with a hole should be pulled, somewhat like shorts. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
4. Cotton should be placed in camphor and embalming scents, then placed on the mouth, nostrils, eyes, ears, and all exit points of the body. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
5. Embalming scents are used to cover the body parts of prostration, [686] Shafi`is and Hanbalis have explicitly mentioned that pieces of cotton are placed in hanut, then placed upon the places of prostration, whereas neither the Hanafis nor Malikis mentioned cotton specifically. and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [687] Hanafis specified camphor for the places of prostration.
6. All of the deceased body is perfumed, and this is the position of the majority: Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf.
7. It is mustahabb to perfume the head and beard of the deceased, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
8. The shroud is wrapped around the deceased from its upper left corner unto his right side, then its left side is wrapped around his right side. The same is then done with the second and third shrouds. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
9. The deceased is placed upon the shrouds such that the largest piece of excess shroud is at his head, which is then wrapped over his head and feet respectively. The Shafi`is and Hanbalis have explicitly mentioned this.
10. The shrouds are tied up after they are wrapped around the deceased, and this is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [688] Hanafis and Hanbalis mentioned that it should be wrapped if it is feared that it will come undone.


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