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Section IV: How to Deliver the Friday Sermons and Offer its Prayer

Firstly: How to Deliver the Friday Sermon Delivering the sermon from the minbar (pulpit)
It is mustahabb that the sermon be delivered from the minbar. Consensus on this was related by al-Nawawi, Ibn Muflih, and al-Mirdawi. Being in a state of purity
It is sunnah, not a necessary condition, that the sermon be delivered in a state of purity. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, Zahiris, and al-Shafi`i according to his old position. The preacher greets the attendees with salams
It is mustahabb for the imam to give salams to those attending after he mounts the minbar and faces them. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools and a group of the Salaf. It is the position of choice of Ibn `Uthaymin. The preacher sits until the muezzin calls the adhan
It is sunnah for the preacher to sit down after mounting the minbar and greeting the attendees with salams. He remains seated until the muezzin calls the adhan. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Giving the adhan in front of the preacher before the start of the sermon
The adhan is legislated shortly after the imam mounts the minbar. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Qudamah and Ibn Rajab. The first adhan for the Friday prayer
The first adhan for the Friday prayer is legislated. [574] Discussed earlier in the section on adhan. Sunnah acts of the sermon
The preacher leans on a bow or staff
It is mustahabb that the preacher lean on a bow or staff. [575] Some scholars hold that it is mustahabb in the absence of a minbar. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
The preacher faces the congregation
It is legislated that the imam deliver the sermon while facing those in the mosque, his back towards the qiblah. Ibn Rajab related consensus on this.
Congregants should look at him
It is mustahabb that congregants face the imam when he is delivering the sermon. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis, as well as one position according to Malikis.
Raising the voice when delivering the sermon
It is mustahabb for the preacher to raise his voice while delivering the Friday sermon. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
The ruling of shortening the sermon
Shortening the sermon is legislated. [576] Al-Nawawi says: “Its brevity should be balanced. He should not exaggerate to the point of obliterating it.” (Al-Majmu`, 4/529) There is no harm in lengthening the sermon on occasion as the need arises and the case warrants. Agreement on this has been related by al-Qarafi and al-Shawkani.
The ruling related to the preacher standing while delivering the sermon
Scholars differ regarding the ruling related to the preacher standing while delivering the sermon. Two positions are strongest:
The first position: It is a condition for the sermon’s validity that the preacher stand while delivering the sermon if he is able to do so. This is the position of the Shafi`i school and most Malikis. Al-Qurtubi chose this position. It is also the position of one narration from Ahmad.
The second position: It is sunnah that he deliver the sermon standing. This is the position of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools and some Malikis. It is the position of choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
Sitting between sermons
It is mustahabb, not wajib, to sit between the two sermons. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and most scholars.
Supplicating during the sermon
It is mustahabb to supplicate for Muslims during the sermon. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and one position among Shafi`is.
The ruling of raising the hands in supplication while on the minbar
It is not legislated that the imam raise his hands during the Friday sermon. Rather, pointing with the finger suffices unless he prays for rain, in which case he raises his hands. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and some Hanafis. Listening
The ruling of listening to the sermon
It is wajib to listen to the sermon and haram to speak during it. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and one position according to al-Shafi`i’s old school. It is the position of the majority of scholars.
Congregants speaking to the preacher
It is permissible to speak to the preacher during the sermon if there is a need. This has been explicitly mentioned by Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
Pointing during the sermon
It is permissible to point during the sermon if there is a need. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, one position among Malikis, and a group of the Salaf.
Exceptions to the prohibition of speaking
Before and after the sermon
It is not haram to speak between the time that the imam emerges and when he starts the sermon, nor between when he descends (from the pulpit) after it and when he starts the prayer. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan among Hanafis.
Between the two sermons
It is permissible to speak between the two sermons, particularly if there is a need. This is the position of the Shafi`i school, the sound position of the Hanbali school, the position of Abu Yusuf the Hanafi, and al-Hasan al-Basri. It is the position of choice of Ibn Hazm, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin. Responding to salams and one who says Alhamdulillah after sneezing
When the sermon is being delivered, salams are not responded to and one who says Alhamdulillah after sneezing is not given a response. This is the position of the Hanafi and Maliki schools, an old position of al-Shafi`i, and a narration from Ahmad. It is the position of choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin. Sending blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ when he is mentioned in the sermon
Quietly sending blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ when he is mentioned in the sermon is legislated. This is the position of the Maliki and Hanbali schools, Abu Yusuf, and a group of the Salaf. It is the position of choice of al-Kamal ibn al-Humam and Ibn `Uthaymin. The preacher saying something outside of the sermons if there is benefit in doing so
It is permissible for the preacher to say something outside of the sermons if there is a benefit in doing so. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Greeting the mosque while the imam is delivering the sermon
It is mustahabb for one who enters the mosque to offer two units of prayer even if the imam is delivering the Friday sermon. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools, a group of the Salaf, and the Zahiri school. It is the position of choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin. Passing over others during the sermon
It is haram to pass over others during the sermon. This is the position of the Hanafi and Maliki schools. It is the position of choice of Ibn al-Mundhir, al-Nawawi, Ibn Taymiyyah, and Ibn `Uthaymin. It is also the verdict of the Permanent Council. Passing over others if one finds a place that cannot be reached except by passing over them
It is permissible to pass over others if one finds a place that he wouldn’t reach except by passing over them. This is explicitly mentioned by the majority: the Malikis, [577] However, they disallow this once the imam sits upon the minbar even when there is an empty spot available. Shafi`is, [578] They hold that it is permissible to pass over a man or two. As for when there are many people before him, then if he thinks that they will move ahead when they stand up to pray, he should sit until they stand up. If he doesn’t think they will move ahead, it is permissible to pass over them so as to reach the empty spot. and Hanbalis. It is also the position of a group of the Salaf. Sitting knees-to-chest during the sermon
There is no harm sitting knees-to-chest [579] Sitting knees-to-chest (ihtiba’) is when someone sits while lifting his knees. His lifts his legs to his abdomen and ties them, along with his back, with a garment that is pulled tight across them both. His buttocks are on the ground. Ihtiba’ can also be performed with the arms in place of a garment. while the imam is delivering the Friday sermon. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, the Zahiri school, most scholars, and a group of the Salaf.
Secondly: How to Offer the Friday Prayer Is it a condition that the imam be the preacher?
It is not necessary that the one responsible for prayer be responsible for the sermon. This is the position of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools. It is the position of choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin. The number of units of the Friday prayer
The Friday prayer is two units. Consensus on this was related by Ibn al-Mundhir, Ibn Hazm, al-Kasani, Ibn Rushd, Ibn Qudamah, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Juzayy. What is mustahabb to be recited during the Friday prayer
Surah al-Jumu`ah and Surah al-Munafiqun
It is mustahabb to recite Surah al-Jumu`ah in the first unit of the Friday prayer and Surah al-Munafiqun in the second. [580] Ibn al-Qayyim says: “It is not mustahabb that he recite a portion of each surah or recite one of them in both units, for that is contrary to the sunnah. Ignorant imams do this constantly.” (Zad al-Ma`ad, 1/369) This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [581] For Malikis, it is mustahabb to recite Surah al-Jumu`ah in the first. In the second, one is free to choose from Surah al-A`la, Surah al-Ghashiyah, and Surah al-Munafiqun.
Surah al-A`la and Surah al-Ghashiyah
It is mustahabb to recite Surah al-A`la in the first unit of the Friday prayer and Surah al-Ghashiyah in the second. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, Hanbalis, and according to an old position of al-Shafi`i. Reciting out loud
It is sunnah to recite out loud during the Friday prayer. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Hazm, al-Kasani, Ibn Qudamah, al-Nawawi, and Ibn Juzayy. If a follower has no place to prostrate
If a follower has no place to prostrate, he prostrates on his brother’s back if he is able to do so. [582] This is true for the Friday prayer and others, but it is more likely to occur during the Friday prayer. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, Ashhab from among the Malikis, and the Zahiris. The portion of the Friday prayer that makes it count for a latecomer
A latecomer catches the Friday prayer if he catches the bowing of the second unit of prayer. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, most scholars, and a group of the Salaf. Sunnah acts before and after the Friday prayer
The sunnah prayer preceding the Friday prayer
There is no ratibah sunnah prayer before the Friday prayer. [583] See Chapter VII: Voluntary Prayers.
The sunnah prayer following the Friday prayer [584] See Chapter VII: Voluntary Prayers.


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