| 2 feqhia


Section I: Categories of Voluntary Prayers

Firstly: The Definition of Voluntary Prayers
Linguistically, volunteering is to do anything that is not required.
Legally, volunteering is doing something legislated that is neither an obligation nor wajib.
Voluntary prayers are also known as additional prayers (nafl) and al-subhah.
Secondly: The Merit of Voluntary Prayers Supplementing the wajib prayers. Whatever is lacking in wajib prayers is made up by voluntary prayers, and they complete them on the Day of Resurrection. An abundance of prostration is a means to the companionship of the Prophet ﷺ in Paradise. An abundance of prostration is a means to enter Paradise, the raising of degrees, and the falling away of sins. Drawing closer to Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He) through voluntary acts is a means to achieving the love of Allah (Glorified and Exalted be He).
Thirdly: Types of Voluntary Prayers
There are many types of voluntary prayers: Some are legislated to be performed in congregation, like taraweeh and the prayer for rain. Some are not legislated to be performed in congregation, like the prayer of guidance. Some supplement the wajib prayers, like sunnah and ratibah prayers. Some do not supplement other prayers, like the duha prayer. Some have a specific time, like the witr prayer. Some have a specific reason, like greeting the mosque and praying after wudu’. Some have no specific time or reason, like unconditional additional prayers. Some are confirmed, like the witr prayer. Some are not confirmed, like the two units before the maghrib prayer.
Fourthly: The Rawatib Sunnah Prayers What is meant by rawatib sunnah prayers
Rawatib (plural of ratibah) sunnah prayers are those that are connected to a wajib prayer. Times for rawatib sunnah prayers
Rawatib sunnah prayers are of two types:
Rawatib performed before wajib prayers
Their time begins when the time for the wajib prayer enters and ends when its time ends. This is explicitly mentioned by the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis.
Rawatib performed after wajib prayers
Their time begins after performance of the wajib prayer and ends when its time ends. Shafi`is and Hanbalis explicitly mention this, and Ibn `Uthaymin chose this position. There are twelve units of rawatib prayers: two before fajr, four before zuhr and two after it, two after maghrib, and two after `isha’. This is according to the Hanafi school, a position among Shafi`is, and the chosen position of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Fifthly: The Sunnah Prayer of Fajr The merit of the sunnah prayer of fajr
The sunnah prayer of fajr is the most important of the rawatib by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. How to offer the sunnah prayer of fajr
It is sunnah to keep the sunnah prayer of fajr brief. It is sunnah to recite Surah al-Kafirun in the first unit of the sunnah of fajr and Surah al-Ikhlas in the second. Alternatively, one recites Surah al-Baqarah, verse 136 in the first unit and Surah Al `Imran, verse 52 in the second. Lying down after the sunnah prayer of fajr
Scholars have held various positions regarding lying down after the sunnah prayer of fajr, the most prominent being two:
The first position: It is sunnah to lie down [417] Some of the Salaf have restricted doing this in one’s house rather than a mosque. Ibn Hajar says: “Some of the Salaf are of the opinion that this is mustahabb in one’s house but not a mosque, and this is said to be according to Ibn `Umar. Some of our teachers give weight to this opinion, saying that it has not been related that the Prophet ﷺ did this in the mosque. It is authentically narrated that Ibn `Umar that he would throw pebbles at those doing it in the mosque, as narrated by Ibn Abu Shaybah.” (Fath al-Bari, 3/44) after the sunnah prayer of fajr. [418] Some scholars are of the opinion that this is specific to those who offer the night prayer. This is the position of the Shafi`i [419] It is sunnah according to Shafi`is to lie down after the sunnah and wajib fajr prayers. If one does not do so, one leaves a gap between their performance. school and the most correct opinion among Hanbalis. A group of the Salaf held this position.
The second position: It is not sunnah to lie down after the sunnah prayer of fajr. This is the position of the Hanafi and Maliki schools, a narration from Ahmad, a group of the Salaf, and the majority of scholars. It is the chosen position of Ibn Battal and the Permanent Committee.
Sixthly: The Sunnah Prayer of Zuhr
This was mentioned previously in the section on the number of rawatib units of prayer. Four units are offered before zuhr and two after it.
Seventhly: The Sunnah Prayer of `Asr
There is no confirmed ratibah prayer connected to `asr, though it is mustahabb to pray before it. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [420] Confirmed rawatib sunnah prayers according to the Shafi`i school are limited to ten units, and do not include the sunnah prayer for `asr even though it is a ratibah prayer, though unconfirmed.
Eighthly: The Sunnah Prayer of Maghrib The sunnah prayer that precedes maghrib
It is meritorious to offer two units of prayer before mahgrib, but it is not a ratibah sunnah. This is the correct position of the Shafi`i school, some Hanafis, the Zahiris, a narration from Ahmad, the position Hadith specialists, and a group of the Salaf. It is the chosen position of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Hajar, al-San`ani, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, al-Albani, and Ibn `Uthaymin. The sunnah prayer that follows maghrib
This was mentioned previously in the section on the number of rawatib units of prayer. It is two units. Recitation during the sunnah prayer that follows maghrib
It is mustahabb to recite Surah al-Kafirun and Surah al-Ikhlas. This is the position of the Shafi`is and Hanbalis, and has been explicitly mentioned by some Maliki jurists. It is the chosen position of Ibn al-Qayyim, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin. The ruling of offering optional prayers between maghrib and `isha’
It is mustahabb to offer optional prayers between maghrib and `isha’ by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [421] There is a difference of opinion regarding how many units of prayer to offer optionally and regarding its minimum and maximum. This is also the position of a group of the Salaf.
Ninthly: The Sunnah Prayer of `Isha’
This has already been mentioned in the section on the number of rawatib sunnah prayers: it is two units.
Tenthly: The Sunnah Prayer of the Friday Prayer
1. Optional prayers on Friday before the sun passes its zenith
It is mustahabb to offer optional prayers on Friday before the sun passes its zenith. Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis have explicitly mentioned this.
2. Optional prayers on Friday after the sun passes its zenith
It is mustahabb to offer option prayers on Friday after the sun passes its zenith and before the imam emerges. Consensus on this was related by Ibn Rajab.
3. Praying while the sun is at its zenith on Friday
Scholars have differed regarding offering prayers on Friday when the sun is at its zenith in the middle of the sky until it begins to set (i.e. descend). The two strongest positions are:
The first position: This is a time when prayers are prohibited, just like on other days. This is the position of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools and the choice of Ibn `Uthaymin.
The second position: This is not a time when prayers are prohibited on Friday. This is the position of the Maliki school [422] It is not prohibited to pray during this time on any day according to Malikis. and the strongest position among Shafi`is. It is the position of Abu Yusuf among the Hanafis, one position among Hanbalis, the position of a group of the Salaf, and was chosen by Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-San`ani, and Ibn Baz.
4. Does the Friday prayer have a ratibah sunnah prayer that precedes it?
The Friday prayer does not have a ratibah sunnah that precedes it. This is the position of the Maliki [423] Malikis have not listed preceding sunnah prayers as sunnah for the Friday prayer, nor have they specified rawatib sunnah prayers other than the ratibah of fajr. and Hanbali schools and is what is followed by the vast majority of the Ummah. It is the choice of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, and Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani.
5. The sunnah prayer following the Friday prayer
Scholars have differed regarding the number of units of sunnah prayer offered after the Friday prayer. There are three positions:
The first position: The sunnah prayer after the Friday prayer is four units. This is the position of the Hanafi and Shafi`i [424] According to Shafi`is, it is sunnah to offer four units after the Friday prayer, two of which are confirmed. schools. A group of the Salaf took this position, and it was selected by Ibn al-Mundhir and al-San`ani.
The second position: One is free to choose whether to pray two or four units. This is one narration according to Ahmad and is the position of Ibn Baz and al-Albani.
The third position: If offered in the mosque, one prays four units, whereas if offered at home, one prays two. This is the position of Ishaq ibn Rahawayh and was selected by Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim. It is the verdict of the Permanent Committee.
Eleventhly: The Ruling of Making up Missed Rawatib Sunnah Prayers
1. The ruling of making up missed rawatib sunnah prayers at times when prayer is not prohibited
Making up missed rawatib sunnah prayers is legislated at times when prayer is not prohibited. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools. It is given preponderance by Ibn Taymiyyah and selected by al-Qayyim and Ibn `Uthaymin [425] Ibn `Uthaymin stipulates that it must not have been missed deliberately, but rather, due to an excuse. .
2. Making up missed rawatib sunnah prayers at times when prayer is prohibited
Those who hold that it is legislated to make up rawatib sunnah prayers at times when prayer is prohibited [426] These being Shafi`is and Hanbalis as was mentioned previously regarding the ruling of making up rawatib sunnah prayers at times when prayer is not prohibited. have held various positions, the most familiar of which are two:
The first position: That rawatib sunnah prayers are made up during times when it is prohibited to pray. This is the position of the Shafi`i school and one narration from Ahmad. It was chosen by Ibn Taymiyyah.
The second position: That rawatib sunnah prayers are not made up during times when it is prohibited to pray. This is the position of the Hanbali school: https://www.alukah.net/sharia/0/25930/. [427] The majority of scholars of the Hanafi, Maliki, and Hanbali schools give more weight to the position that prayers that have a legal reason are not generally made up during times when it is prohibited to pray. This will be covered soon under the topic of prayers that have specific legal reasons.
Twelfthly: The Night Prayer
1. The ruling of the night prayer
The night prayer is sunnah. [428] The Prophet ﷺ would sometimes rise to pray after half the night had passed, slightly earlier, or slightly later. He would occasionally rise upon hearing ‘the crier’, meaning a rooster, which only calls during the second half of the night. The night prayer being a sunnah for the remainder of the Ummah has been related by Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Nawawi, Ibn Hazm, and Ibn Hajar.
2. The number of units of night prayer
Night prayer does not have an upper limit that cannot be exceeded, nor a lower limit by which it cannot be reduced. [429] Scholars have differed regarding what is optimal. Some of them hold that it is eleven or thirteen lengthy units of prayer. The majority of jurists hold that it is twenty units. The matter is expansive in this regard. Consensus on this has been related by Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Qadi `Iyad, and al-`Iraqi.
3. How to offer the night prayer
The night prayer is offered in doubles; i.e. two units of prayer at a time. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and Abu Yusuf and Abu Muhammad of the Hanafi school. It was chosen by Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
4. When to offer the night prayer
This will be discussed when discussing when to offer the witr prayer.
5. Sunnah acts preceding the night prayer
It is mustahabb for one who awakens intending to stand in prayer to wipe the sleep off their face, to brush with a miswak, and to make mention of Allah the Exalted.
6. Praying two short units of prayer when starting the night prayer
It is mustahabb for one intending the night prayer to start with two short units of prayer.
7. The ruling of consistently praying the entire night
It is not sunnah to pray the entire night every night. Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis have explicitly mentioned this.
8. The ruling of missing the night prayer
Whoever misses the night prayer makes it up during the day. Hanbalis have explicitly mentioned this. This is the chosen position of the Maliki Ibn al-`Arabi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
9. Singling out Thursday nights for the night prayer
This will be discussed in the chapter on the Friday prayer.
Thirteenthly: The Taraweeh Prayer (The Night Prayer During Ramadan)
1. The definition of taraweeh
Literally, taraweeh is the plural of tarweehah, which means a period of rest. It was so named because people would prolong standing, bowing, and prostrating in such prayers. They would rest after praying four units and then recommence by praying four more. Then they would rest and then pray three more.
Legally, taraweeh is the night prayer during Ramadan.
2. The ruling of praying taraweeh
The taraweeh prayer is a confirmed sunnah. Consensus on it being sunnah was related by al-Nawawi, Shaykhi Zadeh, and al-San`ani.
3. The ruling of praying taraweeh in congregation in a mosque
Praying taraweeh in congregation in a mosque is better than praying it alone. Consensus on this was related by Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Ibn Qudamah, and others.
4. When to pray taraweeh
The sunnah is to pray taraweeh after `isha’. Ibn Taymiyyah related an agreement of both the Salaf and imams on this.
5. The number of units of taraweeh
This was previously mentioned when addressing the number of units of the night prayer.
6. Recitation during taraweeh
There is no specific amount of Qur’an that must be recited during taraweeh, but it is mustahabb to recite the entire Qur’an. [430] Ibn Taymiyyah says: “As for reciting the Qur’an during taraweeh, it is mustahabb by the agreement of Muslim imams. Rather, one of the greatest objectives of taraweeh is the recitation of the Qur’an during it such that Muslims might hear the speech of Allah. For it was during Ramadan that the Qur’an was revealed and during it Jibreel would teach the Prophet ﷺ the Qur’an.” (Majmu’ al-Fatawa, 23/122-123)
7. Reciting out loud during taraweeh
It is mustahabb to recite out loud during taraweeh. Consensus on this was related by al-Nawawi.
Fourteenthly: The Witr Prayer
1. The ruling regarding the witr prayer
The witr prayer is a confirmed sunnah. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis [431] The witr prayer is a confirmed sunnah according to Hanbalis except with respect to the Prophet ﷺ, for whom it was wajib. . It is also so according to one narration from Abu Hanifah, and Hanafis such as Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan also held this position. It is the position of most scholars.
2. When witr starts and ends
The time for witr starts after the `isha’ prayer and ends at the emergence of dawn (fajr). This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. It is the position of Hanafis such as Abu Yusuf and Muhammad ibn al-Hasan.
3. The best time for witr
Praying witr during the last portion of the night is best for someone who expects to rise during the last portion of the night. Praying witr during the first portion of the night is better for one who fears that he will not rise. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
4. Praying one unit of witr
It is permissible to pray one unit of witr separate from anything before it. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis [432] It is permissible to pray one unit of witr according to Malikis, though it is makruh to pray one unit of witr without offering an even-number of units (shaf`) before it. , Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. It is the position of a group of the Salaf.
5. Praying witr as three contiguous units with one tashahhud
It is permissible to pray witr as three contiguous units. This is the position of the Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and a group of the Salaf. It is the position of choice according to Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
6. Praying witr as three contiguous units with two tashahhuds
It is not legislated to pray witr as three contiguous units with two tashahhuds in a manner similar to the maghrib prayer. This is the position of the Hanbali school, one position according to Shafi`is, and the position of choice according to Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
7. Praying five, seven, or nine units of witr
It is permissible to pray five units of witr uninterrupted, not sitting for tashahhud except during the last of them. It is permissible to pray seven units of witr uninterrupted, not sitting except during the last of them. Alternatively, one may sit for the tashahhud during the sixth, then rise for the seventh, then sit for tashahhud, and then give salams. It is permissible to pray nine units of witr, praying eight uninterrupted, then sitting during the eighth, then rising for the ninth, then reciting the tashahhud and giving salams. This is the position of the Shafi`i school, [433] According to Shafi`is, it is permissible to only recite the tashahhud during the last unit of prayer, and that is superior. It is also permissible to recite the tashahhud during the last two units of prayer. one position among Hanbalis, [434] The positon of the Hanbali school is that all formulations given are permissible with the exception of sitting for the tashahhud during both the sixth and seventh units of prayer. This is the selected position of Ibn `Uthaymin. and the position of choice according to Ibn Baz.
8. Recitation during the witr prayer
It is sunnah to recite Surah al-A`la during the first unit, Surah al-Kafirun during the second, and Surah al-Ikhlas during the last unit. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis [435] It is mandub to recite al-Ikhlas and al-Mu`awwidhatan (Surah al-Falaq and Surah al-Nas) during the third unit according to Malikis. , Shafi`is, [436] It is sunnah to recite al-Ikhlas and al-Mu`awwidhatan during the third unit according to Shafi`is. and Hanbalis. According to Hanafis, it is good on occasion. [437] The wording of Hanafi jurists is: “Nothing of the Qur’an is specifically designated in prayer. If one recites what has been related, this is good, but one should not always repeat the same surah such that it might cause one to believe that doing so is wajib. Also, doing so entails abandoning the rest of the Qur’an.”
9. Reciting out loud or quietly during witr
This issue will follow when discussing reciting out loud or quietly during optional prayers.
10. Regarding praying witr during the first portion of the night and then rising with the intention of offering optional prayers
Whoever prays witr and then desires to offer optional prayers at night may pray as many even-numbered units of prayer as he wishes. This does not annul [438] Ibn al-Atheer says: “’Annulling witr’ is invalidating it. ‘Evening’ it is by praying an additional unit for one who wishes to offer additional optional prayers after having prayed witr.” (Al-Nihayah, 5/107) his witr prayer by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
11. Praying behind an imam and following him in witr while desiring to pray witr during the last portion of the night
Whoever prays behind an imam and wishes to follow him in praying witr while also desiring to pray witr during the last portion of the night does not give salams when the imam does, but instead rises and prays another unit to even out the number prayed behind the imam. Ahmad explicitly mentioned this, and this is the position of choice of Ibn Baz and Ibn `Uthaymin.
12. Making up the witr prayer
Whoever misses the witr prayer does not make it up. This is the position of the Maliki school, [439] According to Malikis, the witr prayer is not made up after one has prayed fajr. As for when one remembers it before prayer and there is time to offer it, one does make it up. the old position of Imam Shafi`i, and one narration from Ahmad. It is the position of a group of the Salaf and is said to be the position of most scholars. It is the chosen position of Ibn `Abd al-Barr and Ibn Taymiyyah.
Fifteenthly: Qunoot During Witr
1. What is qunoot?
Literally, qunoot can mean supplication, standing, reverence, tranquility, silence, obedience, prayer, humility, worship, and standing at length. The root word qanata implies obedience and goodness in matters of religion.
Legally, qunoot means supplicating during prayer while standing at a specific time.
2. The ruling of qunoot during witr
Qunoot is legislated during witr. This is the position of the majority: [440] This is in general, for they differed whether it should be offered throughout the entire year or only some of it. The details follow. the Hanafis, [441] Qunoot is wajib according to Abu Hanifah and sunnah according to Muhammad and Abu Yusuf. Shafi`is, [442] Al-Nawawi says: “The widely accepted view of our school is that qunoot is mustahabb specifically during the second half of Ramadan.” (Al-Majmu`, 4/24) and Hanbalis, [443] According to them, qunoot is a sunnah during the witr prayer. as well as one narration from Malik. [444] Ibn `Abd al-Barr says: “Malik used to view that qunoot was to be recited during witr during the second half of Ramadan, and that one should pray against those who are worthy of being prayed against. Then he abandoned it according to what his Egyptian students narrated from him… As for his Egyptian students’ (Ibn al-Qasim, Ashhab, Ibn Wahb) narration from Malik in this regard, they narrate that Malik was asked: ‘Should a man recite qunoot in witr?’ He said: ‘No…’ Ashhab says that Malik was asked about qunoot during the dawn prayer, to which he said: ‘As for the dawn prayer, yes. As for witr, I don’t view that qunoot is to be recited during it, even in Ramadan.’” (Al-Istidhkar, 2/26)
3. When to recite qunoot
Qunoot is legislated during witr throughout the year. [445] Some of the scholars are of the position that qunoot is recited in witr during the second half of Ramadan only. This is the position of the Shafi`i school and one narration from Ahmad. It is mustahabb not to recite qunoot every night, so one recites it on occasion and leaves it on occasion. This is the position of the Hanafi and Hanbali schools, a position among Shafi`is that al-Nawawi supported, and a position of a group of the Salaf. It is the position of choice of Ibn Hazm, Ibn Baz, Ibn `Uthaymin, and al-Albani.
4. Saying Ameen behind the imam during the qunoot of witr
Saying Ameen behind the imam is legislated. This is the position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools and one position according to Hanafis. It is the position of choice of Ibn `Uthaymin, and the Permanent Council has issued its verdict according to this position.
5. When to recite qunoot during witr
The proper time for qunoot is during the last unit of the witr prayer after bowing, though before bowing is permissible. This is the position of the Hanbali school, [446] According to them, it is better to recite qunoot after bowing, though it is permissible if recited before. a group of the Salaf, and the jurists from among Hadith specialists. It is the position of choice according to Ibn Hajar, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
6. Received supplications to be recited in qunoot
a. O Allah, guide me among those You have guided. Grant me well-being among those You have granted well-being. Take me into Your charge among those who You have taken into Your charge. Bless for me that which You have given. Save me from the evil that You have decreed, for You decree and nothing is decreed for You. One whom You befriend is not abased. Blessed are You and Most Exalted!
b. O Allah! I seek protection in Your pleasure from Your wrath, in Your amnesty from Your punishment, and I seek protection in You from You. I cannot enumerate Your praise. You are as You have praised Yourself.
c. “O Allah! Fight the disbelievers who divert from Your path, deny Your messengers, and do not believe in Your promise. Cause them to differ among themselves, put fear in their hearts, and send Your disgrace and torment upon them O True Deity!” Then one sends blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ and prays for Muslims inasmuch as one can in terms of goodness. Then one asks forgiveness for believers and says: “O Allah! It is You alone that we worship, to You alone we pray and prostrate, and for You alone do we strive and sally forth. We wish for Your mercy, our Lord, and we fear Your terrible torment. Truly, Your torment reaches those whom You have enmity towards!”
d. O Allah! Forgive believing men and women and Muslim men and women. Unite their hearts and rectify affairs among them. Give them victory over Your enemies and their enemies. O Allah! Curse the disbelievers of the People of the Book, those who deny Your messengers and fight your allies. O Allah! Cause them to differ among themselves, and shake the ground beneath their feet and cause Your detriment that cannot be lifted from wrongdoers to descend upon them. In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. O Allah! We seek Your help and ask Your forgiveness. We praise You and are not ungrateful toward You. We absolve ourselves of and abandon those who indulge against You. In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. O Allah! It is You alone that we worship, to You alone we pray and prostrate, and for You alone do we strive and sally forth. We wish for Your mercy, our Lord, and we fear Your torment. Truly, Your torment reaches the disbelievers.
7. Raising the hands during qunoot
It is mustahabb to raise the hands when supplicating in qunoot. This is the sound position of the Shafi`i school, as well as the position of the Hanbali school, and one narration from Abu Yusuf. A group of the Salaf held this position, and it is the position of choice of Ibn Baz, Ibn `Uthaymin, and al-Albani.
8. Wiping the face with the hands after qunoot
Wiping the face with the hands after qunoot is not legislated. This is the sound position of the Shafi`i school. Malik explicitly mentioned it. It is one position among Hanafis and one narration from Ahmad. Some of the Salaf held this position, and it is the chosen position of al-Ajurry, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
9. Sending blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ after qunoot
It is sunnah to send blessings upon the Prophet ﷺ after qunoot. This is the sound position of the Shafi`i and Hanbali schools, and one position among Hanafis.
10. What is avoided during qunoot
The imam must avoid several matters when supplicating during qunoot, including:
- Overdoing it when it comes to raising the voice when supplicating
- Raising the voice when weeping
- Artificially forcing supplications to rhyme
- Supplicating for such a long time that it is burdensome on the followers
11. Supplication upon completing recitation of the Qur’an during prayer
Supplicating upon completing recitation of the Qur’an during prayer is not legislated. This is the position of the Maliki school and one position among Hanafis. It is the position of choice of al-Albani and Ibn `Uthaymin.
12. What is said after witr
After ending the witr prayer with salams, it is sunnah to say: “Blessed be the King, the Most Holy. Blessed be the King, the Most Holy, Blessed be the King, the Most Holy.” The voice is raised on the third time.
Sixteenthly: The Duha Prayer What is the duha prayer?
The duha prayer is the prayer that is offered at the time of duha, which is the start of the day. The ruling of the duha prayer
The duha prayer is mustahabb by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [447] It is a confirmed sunnah according to Shafi`is. The ishraq prayer
The ishraq (sunrise) prayer is the duha prayer when offered at the start of its time. This is the position of choice of al-Teebi, Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, al-Ramli, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin. The time of the duha prayer
The time for the duha prayer begins when the sun has risen a spear’s length [448] Ibn `Uthaymin says: “Prayer is prohibited from sunrise until the sun rises a spear’s length; i.e. according to a person looking at it. Otherwise, this rising a spear’s length in real terms is more than hundreds of times greater than the earth’s measure, but we see it above the horizon as a spear’s length; i.e. about a metre.” (Al-Sharh al-Mumti`, 4/87,88) after sunrise and lasts until the sun reaches its zenith before it begins to descend. [449] Ibn `Uthaymin says: “Before the sun begins to descend by a short interval: approximately 10 minutes. That is because the period before the sun begins its descent is a time when prayer is prohibited, for it is the time when Hell is fired up.” (Al-Sharh al-Mumti`, 4/87,88) This is explicitly mentioned by Hanafi, Maliki, and Hanbali jurists. It is one of two positions among Shafi`is. The best time to offer the duha prayer
It is best to offer the duha prayer when the sun rises high in the sky and its heat becomes strong. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. The minimum number of units for the duha prayer
The minimum number of units for the duha prayer is two by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. The maximum number of units for the duha prayer
Scholars have differed regarding the maximum number of units for the duha prayer. The two strongest positions are:
The first position: The maximum number of units for the duha prayer is eight. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, the official position of the Shafi`i school, and Hanbalis.
The second opinion: There is no maximum number of units for the duha prayer. This is the position of choice of Ibn Jareer al-Tabari, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Seventeenthly: The Prayer of Glorification (Salat al-Tasbeeh)
The prayer of glorification is not legislated. [450] Al-Shirbini says: “During the prayer of glorification, which is four units, one repeats ‘Glorified be Allah’, ‘Praise be to Allah’, ‘There is no god but Allah’, ‘Allah is greatest’ 300 times: 15 times after the opening Allahu Akbar and before recitation, 10 times after recitation and before bowing, 10 times when bowing and similarly after rising from it, when prostrating and rising from it, and during the second prostration. These are 75 invocations multiplied by four, which makes 300.” (Mughni al-Muhtaj, 1/225) It was named “the prayer of glorification” due to the unusually large number of invocations of glorification in it, and because that is one of its objectives. This is the position of the Hanbali school and one position among Hanafis. It is the chosen position of Ibn al-`Arabi, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, al-Shawkani, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.
Eighteenthly: The Prayer of Greeting the Mosque The ruling of greeting the mosque
It is sunnah to pray two units upon entering a mosque by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. The wajib prayer renders greeting the mosque uncalled for
One who enters a mosque and finds that the iqamah has been called or finds the imam praying should not offer the prayer of greeting the mosque, for it is no longer called for with respect to him. [451] Shafi`is, Hanbalis, and some Malikis have explicitly mentioned that one achieves both the wajib prayer and the prayer of greeting the mosque if one intends both. Ibn Taymiyyah and Ibn Hajar related consensus on this. Greeting the mosque after sitting
The prayer of greeting the mosque does not become uncalled for by virtue of sitting down. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, and Hanbalis [452] Though Hanbalis make an exception when a long period has passed, in which case the prayer of greeting the mosque is no longer called for. . Entering al-Masjid al-Haram and performing circumambulation
When one enters al-Masjid al-Haram (in Mecca) and circumambulates the Ka`bah, this counts as greeting the mosque. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. [453] Hanbalis agree with the majority in that one entering Mecca begins with circumambulation of the Ka`bah, but they differ in terminology, not calling it “greeting the mosque”, but “greeting the Ka`bah”. As such, they hold that greeting the mosque is still called for, saying that the two units of prayer offered after circumambulation take the place of greeting the mosque. Entering al-Masjid al-Haram not intending circumambulation
One who enters al-Masjid al-Haram for a purpose other than circumambulation, such as to pray or acquire knowledge, should still offer two units of prayer before sitting. This is the position of Hanafis and Malikis, and is the position of choice of Ibn `Uthaymin. The Permanent Council gave its verdict according to this position. Greeting the mosque during times when prayer is prohibited
This will be discussed when discussing offering prayers that have specific legal reasons during times when prayer is prohibited.
Nineteenthly: Offering Optional Prayers between the Adhan and Iqamah
Offering optional prayers is legislated between every adhan and its corresponding iqamah. [454] There is a difference of opinion regarding offering two units of prayer before maghrib. The strength of the position that doing so is legislated has been put forward earlier. Ibn Battal and Ibn Hajar have related consensus that offering two units of prayer between every adhan and iqamah is sunnah except with respect to mahgrib, for there is a difference of opinion regarding it.
Twentiethly: The Guidance Prayer (Istikharah) What is the guidance prayer?
Literally, istikharah means “seeking what is good”, as it is Form X verbal noun of the root khayr, meaning “good” or “goodness”.
Legally, istikharah means asking for one’s resolve to be directed to that which has been chosen by Allah and superior through prayer and the supplication transmitted for istikharah. [455] Assigning a proxy is not legislated for the guidance prayer. Rather, the concerned party offers the prayer themselves. The ruling of the guidance prayer
The guidance prayer is sunnah by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. Performing the guidance prayer at times when prayer is prohibited
The guidance prayer is not offered at times when prayer is prohibited [456] Some scholars, like Ibn Taymiyyah and others, hold that it may be offered at times when prayer is prohibited if it concerns an urgent matter that might pass if one is required to wait for a time when prayer is permissible. by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence. When to supplicate during the guidance prayer
Supplicating is done after the salams that end the prayer. This is the position of the majority: the Malikis, Shafi`is, and Hanbalis. Repeating the guidance prayer
If the matter remains unclear to the one seeking guidance, he may repeat the guidance prayer. This is the position of the majority: the Hanafis, Malikis, and Shafi`is. How to supplicate for guidance
O Allah, I consult You through Your Knowledge, and I seek strength through Your Power, and ask of Your Great Bounty; for You are Capable whereas I am not and, You know and I do not, and You are the Knower of hidden things. O Allah, if You know that this matter is good for me in respect of my religion, my livelihood, and the consequences of my affairs – or he said the near and far of my affairs – then ordain it for me. But if You know this matter to be bad for my religion, my livelihood, or the consequences of my affairs – or he said the near and far of my affairs – then turn it away from me and turn me away from it, and grant me power to do good whatever it may be, and cause me to be contented with it.
One mentions what the need is.
Twenty-Firstly: The Repentance Prayer
The repentance prayer is legislated after committing a sin. This is by agreement of the four schools of jurisprudence.
Twenty-Secondly: Praying Two Units after Wudu’
It is mustahabb to offer two units of prayer after performig wudu’. This is explicitly mentioned by Hanafis, Shafi`is, [457] According to them, it is even prayed at times when prayer is prohibited, for it is one of the prayers that has a legal reason. and Hanbalis. It is the position of the Maliki al-Qadi `Iyad, and also that of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz, and Ibn `Uthaymin.


22 22