| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Arrogance

Kibr linguistically: comes from takabbur. It is said that kibr is the noun for kabura al-amru wa al-dhanbu kubra if a matter or sin has been magnified, becoming grand or great. Kibr and kibriya' refer to greatness. Kabartuhu mukabaratan means one overcame another and took him on. [1177] al-Misbah al-Munir, al-Fayyumi (2/523).

Kibr technically: is one's grand opinion of oneself, finding one's virtue profound, belittling people and looking down on them, elevating oneself over that which one ought to be humble with. [1178] Tahdhib al-Akhlaq, al-Jahiz (p. 32). The Difference between Arrogance and its Synonyms: Pompousness (Zahw), Pride (Kibriya’) and Grandeur (Jabarut and Jabriyyah) [1179] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 154-155, 445).

Arrogance is to display one's grand esteem, raising oneself more than it is deserving of. Pomp is when another thing raises the self's status other than itself, like wealth, status, and the like.

Pride is honour and kingship, and it bears no relation in meaning to arrogance. Pridefulness (takabbur) is the displaying of arrogance (kibr).

Grandeur is greater than arrogance. This is highlighted in the grandness of the word itself. Grandness of word implies grandness of meaning in these types of semantical analyses.Dispraise of Arrogance and its Prohibition in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, elucidated the reason why Satan refused to prostrate to Adam, saying: “We said to the angels: ‘Prostrate before Adam;’ so they prostrated, except for Satan. He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.” al-Baqarah: 34.
❖ Allah, blessed and exalted, says: “I will keep distracted from My signs those who behave arrogantly on earth without any right, and who, even if they see every sign, will not believe in them; they will not take the way of right guidance if they see it, but will take the way of error if they see that. This is because they denied Our signs and paid them no heed.” al-A`raf: 146.
❖ `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, Allah be pleased with him, said: “The Prophet ﷺ said: ‘No one who has an atom’s worth of arrogance will enter the Garden.’ A man said: ‘What of one who likes that his garments and sandals be beautiful?’ He said: ‘Allah is beautiful and He loves beauty. Arrogance is severing truth and looking down on the people.’” [1180] Reported by Muslim (91).
❖ Harithah ibn Wahb al-Khuza`i, Allah be pleased with him, narrated that he heard the Prophet ﷺ saying: “Shall I tell you of the inhabitants of the Garden? They comprise every poor humble person, if he swears upon Allah, Allah would fulfill their promise. The inhabitants of the Fire comprise every violent, cruel, arrogant person.” [1181] Reported by al-Bukhari (4918) and Muslim (2853). Quotes of the Predecessors and Scholars on Arrogance and the Arrogant

❖ `Umar ibn al-Khattab, Allah be pleased with him, said: “If the slave is humble for the sake of Allah, Allah will raise his wisdom, saying to him, ‘Be rejuvenated, Allah invigorate you.’ He belittles himself, but he is grand in the people’s eyes. If he is blindly arrogant, Allah will put him to the ground, saying to him, ‘Be disgraced, Allah disgrace you.’ He sees himself grand, though he is debased in the people’s eyes, until he is more degraded than a pig among them.” [1182] Reported by Ibn Abi Shaybah in al-Musannaf (34461) and Abu Dawud in al-Zuhd (p. 85). Ibn Hajar authenticated its chain halted in al-Amali al-Mutlaqah (88).
❖ al-Ahnaf ibn Qays said: “Strange is the son of Adam. He is arrogant when he has passed twice through the path of urine!” [1183] Ihya’ `Ulum al-Din, al-Ghazali (3/338).
❖ Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn `Ali said: “No arrogance enters the heart of a man but that his intellect reduces in accordance with the amount of arrogance, be it little or a lot.” [1184] The previous source (3/339). Categories of Arrogance

Arrogance is divided into three categories, some more intense than others, despite them all being blameworthy in the sight of Allah, His Messenger ﷺ, and people: Arrogance against Allah, exalted. This is the most obscene form of arrogance. It is like that arrogance held by Pharaoh and Nimrod, since they refused to be slaves of Allah, proclaiming Lordship. Allah, exalted, says: “Your Lord says, ‘Call on Me and I will answer you; those who are too proud to serve Me will enter Hell utterly abased.’” Ghafir: 60, meaning: disgraced; as well as the verse “The Messiah would never disdain to be a slave of Allah...” al-Nisa’: 172. Arrogance against His Messenger ﷺ. That one refuses to follow him out of arrogance, ignorance, and stubbornness. This is described by Allah as being the attitude of the disbelievers of Makkah, as well as other nations. Arrogance against the slaves of Allah. This is when one magnifies himself, belittles and looks down on others, and therefore refuses to follow another person. One elevates himself and cannot accept that he is on an equal pedestal as another. [1185] al-Zawajir, al-Haytami (1/118). Impacts and Harms of Arrogance
Not being able to take heed from events. Anxiety and spiritual instability. Being constantly in shameful and faulty doings. Being prohibited from entering the Garden, and deserving of punishment in the Fire. Having no helpers or supporters, rather splitting off and feeling isolated. Being prohibited from divine support and aid. [1186] Afat `ala al-Tariq, Sayyid Muhammad Nuh (1/175), with adaptation. Causes of Arrogance
Within the arrogant: vanity, as it begets internal arrogance, which then begets external arrogance in deed, word, or state. Within the one with whom a person is arrogant: malice and envy. A cause unrelated to either of those two: ostentation. [1187] Ihya’ `Ulum al-Din, al-Ghazali, with adaptation (3/353). What Arrogance is Borne of

“Know that none are arrogant but he who magnifies himself, and he does not magnify it but that he attributes to it some form of perfection. This will either be a worldly or religious perfection. Religious perfection is knowledge and action. Worldly perfection is noble lineage, beauty, strength, wealth, and the abundance of supporters. These are seven means to arrogance.” [1188] The previous source(3/347). Means to Desisting from Endearment
Reminding oneself of the terrible repercussions of arrogance, be they on the individual or collective Islamic level, worldly or religious. Visiting the sick, witnessing another in their final moments, following funeral processions, and visiting graves. Splitting off from the company of the arrogant, and jumping into the company of the humble and modest. Sitting with the weak and needy among the people, and those who have physical or mental ailments. Reflecting over the self, the universe, and all blessings that surround one from top to bottom. Reading the biographies of the arrogant, how they were and what was their conclusion. Seeking excuses for those who are haughty with one in mockery or ridicule. Dispraise of Arrogance in the Words of Writers and Poets

Arrogance is the lead of hatred.
❖ Seeking honour through arrogance is humiliation. [1189] al-Tamthil wa al-Hadarah, al-Tha`alabi (p. 444-445).
❖ It used to be said: “Whoever recognises his brother’s right will have sustainable brotherhood. Whoever is arrogant with the people then wishes for a friend is deluded.”
❖ The poet said:

“Many a humble ignoramus had his
Ignorance hidden by his humility,

And an outstanding learner whose
Arrogance destroyed his virtue.

Avoid arrogance so long as you live,
And do not befriend its possessors.

Arrogance is shameful for man to ever
Have, forever smearing his deeds.” [1190] Mu`jam al-Udaba’, Yaqut al-Hamawi (2/518).

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