| 2 Summary of Ethics


Wickedness

Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Wickedness

Fujur linguistically: is being miscreant and falsehood. Its original meaning is leaning towards a thing. al-Fajir is one who leans. [1133] al-Sihah, al-Jawhari (2/34).

Fujur technically: is lack of restraint and inhibition in going forth to sin. It has been described as: “A collective noun for all evil.” Leaning towards corruption and being loose in sinning. [1134] al-Nihayah, Ibn al-Athir (3/413). The Difference between Wickedness and being Miscreant (Fisq)


Being miscreant is going away from Allah’s obedience through a major sin. It is uninhibited and expansive sinning. [1135] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 397). Dispraise of Wickedness and its Prohibition in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “Or should We treat those who believe and do good like those who make mischief throughout the land? Or should We treat the righteous like the wicked?” Sad: 28.
❖ He, honoured and majestic, also says: “Indeed, the righteous will be in bliss, and the wicked will be in Hell.” al-Infitar: 13, 14.
❖ Ibn Mas`ud, Allah be pleased with him said: “The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘Truthfulness guides to righteousness, and righteousness guides to the Garden. A man continues to say the truth until he is truthful. Lying guides to wickedness, and wickedness leads to the Fire. A man continues to lie until he is written with Allah as wicked.’” [1136] Reported by al-Bukhari (6094) and Muslim (2607), and the wording is his.
❖ Anas, Allah be pleased with him, said: “When the Prophet ﷺ wanted to give someone a special supplication, he would say: ‘Allah give you the prayer of a righteous people, who stand in the night and fast the day, not among the sinners nor wicked.’” [1137] Reported by `Abd ibn Humayd in al-Musnad (1358), al-Bazzar as is in Majma` al-Zawa’id (10/187), Abu Nu`aym in Hilyat al-Awliya’ (2/34), and al-Diya’ in al-Ahadith al-Mukhtarah (1700). al-Busiri authenticated its chain according to the conditions of Muslim in Ithaf al-Khiyarat al-Maharah (6/440), likewise al-Albani in Silsilat al-Ahadith al-Sahihah (1810), and al-Wadi`i in al-Sahih al-Musnad (97). Harms of Wickedness
A path leading to the Fire. A sign of lowliness and degradation. Incites others’ hatred. Entailments of wickedness harm the individual and society. Quotes of the Predecessors and Scholars on Wickedness

❖ al-Hasan ibn `Ali, Allah be pleased with them both, said: “The smartest of smartness is piety, and the stupidest of stupidity is wickedness.” [1138] al-Tamthil wa al-Muhadarah, al-Tha`alabi (p. 30).
❖ It is narrated but halted at the level of Ibn Mas`ud, Allah be pleased with him, that he said: “The believer views his sins as if he is sitting underneath a mountain about to fall on him, whilst the wicked sees his sins as flies that passes by his nose so he does this.” The narrator said: “He moved his hand across his face as if swatting a fly.” [1139] Reported by al-Bukhari (6308) and the wording is his, as well as Muslim (2744). Reasons for Falling into Wickedness 
Hollow faith held by the wicked. Some societal phenomena, like a society that does not adhere to Allah’s Law, or that one is nurtured upon wickedness. The obligation of enjoining good and forbidding evil missing in society. Taking small sins lightly and normalising them. Means to Desisting from Wickedness
Mindfulness of Allah, honoured and majestic. Establishing the obligation of enjoining good and forbidding evil, holding the wicked accountable. Following prophetic guidance in dealing with the wicked: advising them, deserting them, and avoiding them. Wickedness in Sayings, Proverbs, and Poetry

Wickedness
❖ It used to be said that: “Two never gather together: contentment and envy. Two never leave one another: covetousness and wickedness.” [1140] al-Basa’ir wa al-Dhakha’ir, al-Tawhidi (9/132).
❖ The best of this life and the next is in two traits: piety and sufficiency. The worst of this life and the next is in two traits: wickedness and neediness.” [1141] Nathr al-Durr fi al-Muhadarat, al-Abi (4/136); al-Tadhkirah al-Hamduniyyah, Ibn Hamdun (1/62).
❖ Some literary writers said: “Ten traits debase one, and all that is vile branches off therefrom: ignoble lineage, lowly morality, little intellect, evil deeds, debased spirit, cowardice, miserliness, wickedness, lying, cheating people and creating animosity between them.” [1142] al-Tadhkirah al-Hamduniyyah, Ibn Hamdun (1/203).
❖ Zayd ibn `Amr ibn Nufayl, Allah be pleased with him, said:

            “Do you not know that Allah has caused
Men to perish due to their wickedness?”
❖ Marwan ibn al-Hakam said:

“Evil has its people by which they are known.
Fingers point at them for their wickedness.” [1143] Ta`liq min Amali Ibn Durayd, Ibn Durayd al-Azdi (p. 136).




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