| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Aggression

`Udwan linguistically: is blatant injustice. `Ada `alayh, ta`adda `alayh, i`tada, all come with the same meaning of hostility, animosity, and aggression. [1060] al-Sihah, al-Jawhari (6/2421); Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (15/31).

`Udwan technically: is injustice which is passed onto another, or surpassing limits in sin. [1061] Fath al-Qadir, al-Shawkani (2/64). The Difference between Aggression and Some Other Characteristics [1062] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 16); al-Mufradat, al-Raghib (p. 64); Sharh Hadith Labbayk, Ibn Rajab (p. 103).

● The Difference between Aggression and Transgression (Tughyan)

Transgression is surpassing the initial limit, whereas aggression is going over the allowable limit by stopping at it and ending at its end.

● The Difference between Aggression and Abuse (Baghy)

Aggression is surpassing the allowable limit by transgressing it. Abuse is the desire to increase said allowable limit, regardless whether it is or isn’t trespassed. It is used to refer to the arrogant.

● The Difference between Aggression and Injustice (Zulm)

Injustice and aggression may be distinguished in that the former is that which is entirely wrong. As for aggression, then it is going over that which is in origin permissible.Dispraise of Aggression and its Prohibition in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “Cooperate with one another in goodness and righteousness, and do not cooperate in sin and aggression.” al-Ma’idah: 2.
❖ Allah, exalted, says: “You will see many of them rushing towards sin and aggression, and towards devouring what is unlawful. Evil indeed is what they have been doing.” al-Ma’idah: 62.
❖ `A’ishah, Allah be pleased with her, said: “Some Jews came to the Prophet ﷺ and said: ‘Venom sam instead of salam - ‘peace’ be upon you, Abu al-Qasim.’ He replied: ‘And upon you.’ I `A’ishah said back to them: ‘Venom and shame upon you instead.’ The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: ‘`A’ishah, be not obscene.’” `A’ishah said: “Did you not hear what they said?” He ﷺ said: “Did I not throw back at them what they said? I said: ‘And upon you.’” [1063] Reported by al-Bukhari (6401) and Muslim (2165). Obscenity here means an aggressive response. [1064] al-Qamus al-Muhit, al-Fayruzabadi (p. 600).
❖ Abu Hurayrah, Allah be pleased with him, said: “A man came to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and said: ‘Messenger of Allah, what do I do if a man comes to me to take my property?’ He replied: ‘Do not give it to him.’ He said: ‘What if he fights me?’ He ﷺ replied: ‘Fight back.’ He said: ‘What if he kills me?’ He replied: ‘Then you die a martyr.’ He said: ‘What if I kill him?’ He said: ‘He is in the Fire.’” [1065] Reported by Muslim (140). Quotes of the Predecessors and Scholars on Aggression

❖ Ayyub said: “Ibn `Umar passed by a man measuring the weights of some things, and he was doing so somewhat aggressively. He said: ‘Woah, what are you doing?!’ He replied: ‘Allah commanded rigour.’ Ibn `Umar said: ‘But He forbade aggression.’” [1066] Reported by `Abd al-Razza in al-Musannaf (8/67).
❖ al-Rabi` said: “I heard al-Shafi` saying: ‘The most beneficial of hidden treasures is being mindful of Allah, and the most harmful is aggression.’” [1067] Reported by Abu Na`im in Hilyat al-Awliya’ (9/123); al-Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal ila al-Sunnan al-Kubra (1/415).
❖ al-Fadl ibn Yahya wrote to a worker of his: “Terrible as luggage for the time of departure is aggression against the slaves (bi’sa al-zad ila al-ma`ad al`-udwan `ala al-`ibad).” [1068] al-Tadhkirah al-Hamduniyyah, Ibn Hamdun (3/177). Categories of Aggression

The First: aggression instigated, which is impermissible.
The Second: aggression that is as a response.Impacts and Harms of Aggression
A cause of an early worldly punishment. The aggressor being promised the Fire. He is also far from Allah’s love. Forms of Aggression
Taking a life wrongfully. Consuming others’ wealth wrongfully. Aggressive speech. Aggression against others’ honour. Transgression in ritual purification. Transgression in supplication. Reasons for Falling into Aggression
Going against Allah’s commands. Following desires. Belying the Messengers and opposing them. Heedlessness of death. Gambling is one of the causes of aggression. Hatred and resentment. Means to Desisting from Aggression
Obeying Allah, honoured and majestic. Distancing oneself from whimsical desires and selfish pitfalls. Remembering death and the final standing. Pleading Allah and calling upon Him. Disobeying demonic whispers in all matters. Avoiding undignified competition. Desisting from hatred, malice, and envy. Appreciating Islamic brotherhood, placing at the forefront of one’s considerations. Aggression in Adages, Proverbs, and Poetry

❖ “More hostile than a snake.”
❖ “More hostile than a wolf.” [1069] Jamharat al-Amthal, al-`Askari (2/66).
❖ It is said: “Whoever’s aggression prolongs, his kingship shall be removed.”
❖ It is also said: “Whoever is overcome by aggression (`udwan) will be isolated from brothers (ikhwan).” [1070] Rabi` al-Abrar, al-Zamakhshari (3/311).
❖ `Abdullah ibn `Ali Al `Abd al-Qadir said:

“A caller calls: ‘Seeker of goodness, hasten, come;
Seeker of enmity, to its rues you must not succumb.’”
❖ Ibn Waki` al-Tanisi:

“Couple not sin with slanderous speech,
And be fearful of aggression its breach.” [1071] Yatimat al-Dahr, al-Tha`alabi (1/438).

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