| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Humiliation

Dhull linguistically: comes from one who is humble and abject, quails and subordinates, yields and relents, shrinks and cowers, obeys and cringes, and wanes and submits. [956] al-Alfaz al-Mukhtalifah fi al-Ma`ani al-Mu’talafah, Ibn Malik al-Ta’i (1/125).

Dhull technically: dhull and dhillah is being too feeble to confront. It is the shrinking and quailing of the self, borne of incapacity to repel. [957] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 251).; Tafsir Ibn `Ashur (9/119). The Difference between Humiliation and Some Other Characteristics [958] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 248-251).

● The Difference between Humiliation and Disgrace (Khizy)

Disgrace is humiliation mixed with shameful defamation. It has been said that it is repression due to an ugly deed. Khazayah is having a sense of shame (Istihya’), as it is withdrawing from a thing due to its indecency. Ibn Darastawayh said: “Disgrace is upstanding in evil. Khaziya yakhza khizyan. If one is ashamed of the evil he has given or received, it is then said: Khaziya yakhza khazayatan. This is because they revolve around the same meaning but are not equal. Dwelling in evil and being ashamed of it are not the same thing.”

● The Difference between Humiliation and Degradation (Ihanah)

Humiliation of a person by another is to force them upon which they dislike, or make them such that they are solely told what to do. Humiliation is only from one who is higher to another who is lower. Degradation is being taken lightly, taken from tahwin al-qadr (lightening a portion). It is to make a person a nonissue, a matter not cared for. Degradation takes place from those initially on the same pedestal.Dispraise of Humiliation in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “They were struck with humiliation and wretchedness, and they incurred the wrath of Allah because they persistently rejected His messages and killed prophets contrary to all that is right. All this was because they disobeyed and were lawbreakers.” al-Baqarah: 61.
❖ He, sanctified, also says: “Those who took to worshipping the calf will be afflicted by their Lord’s wrath, and by disgrace in this life. This is the way We repay those who invent such falsehoods.” al-A`raf: 152.
❖ Tamim al-Dari, Allah be pleased with him, said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah ﷺ say: ‘This affair Islam will reach everything the day and night reach. Allah will not leave a home of mud or straw but He will allow this religion to enter it, whether by the honour of the honourable or the humiliation of the humiliated - an honour which Allah gives Islam, and a humiliation Allah gives disbelief.’” Tamim al-Dari used to say: “I saw this in members of my family: those of them who embraced Islam enjoyed goodness, honour, and a high standing; and the disbelievers among them were subject to humiliation, disgrace, and the payment of citizenship taxation (jizyah).” [959] Reported by Ahmad (16958) and the wording is his, as well as al-Tabarani (2/58) (1280). al-Hakim authenticated it according to the conditions of the Two Sheikhs in al-Mustadrak (4/477). al-Haythami said in Majma` al-Zawa’id (6/17): “Its transmitters are those of the authentic narrations.” al-Albani said in Tahdhr al-Sajid (158): “It is according to the conditions of Muslim, and it has a supporting testifying evidence according to the conditions of Muslim also.” Categories of Humiliation

Humiliation is categorised into praiseworthy and blameworthy humility:

Blameworthy humiliation: is humiliation in front of other than Allah in a state of abasement, weakness, degradation, brokenness, and indignity.

Praiseworthy humility: al-Raghib al-Asfani said: “Humility, if internally between one and himself, is praiseworthy; like His saying, exalted: “Humble towards the believers.” al-Ma’idah: 54. [960] al-Mufradat, al-Raghib (p. 330).

This includes: Humility in front of Allah, sanctified and exalted. This humility is in fact the means to honour, prestige, and victory in this life and the next. Humility with the believers. This is compassion, humbleness, and endearment; not humiliation, brokenness out of weakness and feebleness. Humility with parents. Allah, exalted, says: “Lower to them the wing of humility out of mercy and say: ‘My Lord, have mercy upon them as they brought me up when I was little.’” al-Isra’: 24. Negative Impacts of Humiliation
Weakness of the self and its abasement. Being overpowered, belittled, and degraded. Disgrace and shame follow a person or a nation who are humiliated. Rights being lost. Repulsion, forlornness, and hatred becoming rife. Enemies gaining domination, and one being defeated. Being weak-willed, falling behind in development and progress. Reasons for Falling into Humiliation
Normalising sins, delaying repentance from them. Associating partners with Allah, and innovating in religious matters. Fighting Allah and His Messenger, going against their commands. Hypocrisy, seeking honour in other than Allah, sanctified and exalted. Having arrogance and vanity to accept the truth. Following whims and desires. Splitting off from the Muslim community. Leaving off fighting in the way of Allah, being attached to the worldly life, and hating death. Miserliness, the spread of usury, and wrongfully consuming others’ wealth. Dividing into factions and groups, being repelled by one another. Means to Ridding Oneself of Humiliation
Having faith in Allah, and continuously doing good deeds. Seeking honour in Allah, clinging to His religion, and implementing His Law. Supplicating to Allah to uplift one’s humiliation and replace it with honour. Being allied to Allah, His Messenger, and the righteous believers. Going against the ego's desires. Contentment and asceticism in the worldly life. Holding fast to the rope of Allah, doing away with differences. Seeking the material and meaningful means to honour and strength. Humiliation in Adages, Proverbs, and Poetry

❖ A sage said: “Whoever seeks honour in any created thing will ultimately be humiliated.” [961] Ma`ani al-Akhbar, al-Kalabadhi (1/136).
❖ “He was a camel (jamal), then became a she-camel (istanwaq).”
❖ “How humiliating - if only I had help!” [962] al-`Iqd al-Farid, Ibn `Abd Rabbih (3/32). The meaning of the proverb is: “This is a humiliation that I would not have accepted had I been backed up.” See: Majma` al-Amthal, al-Maydani (1/280).
❖ al-Mutanabbi said:

“Unless you die with honour by the sword,
You die fighting humiliation, with dishonour.” [963] al-`Ud al-Hindi, al-Saqqaf (1/416).

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