| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Impatience

Jaza` linguistically: is the antonym of patience. It is the verbal noun that comes from jaza`tu al-wadi if one cuts a valley horizontally. It is lacking ability to bear what has befallen one. [860] Tahdhib al-Lughah, al-Azhari (1/221); al-Sihah, al-Jawhari (3/1196); Maqayis al-Lughah, Ibn Faris (1/453).

Jaza` technically: is manifesting anxiety and pain when afflicted. It is also described as a grief which derails man from engaging what he needs to, cutting him off from it. [861] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 200); al-Mufradat, al-Raghib (p. 194 - 195). The Difference between Impatience, Alarm (Faza`), and Soft-heartedness (Riqqat al-Qalb) [862] al-Dhari`ah ila Makarim al-Shari`ah, al-Raghib (p. 234); al-Ruh, Ibn al-Qayyim (p. 250).

Alarm is what overcomes one through fearing something. Impatience is through that which is painful. Faza’ is also a general word. It may be used with a predicate or without.

Impatience is weakness in the self and fear in the heart that is exasperated by greed and covetousness. It is borne of weak faith in divine destiny… as for softness of heart, then it is a form of mercy.Dispraise of Impatience in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, describes the Fire’s inhabitants saying: “Equal it is for us whether we endure impatiently, or whether we endure patiently; in no way can we have any evasion.” Ibrahim: 21.
❖ He, exalted, also says: “Man was truly created anxious: impatient if struck with calamity, tight-fisted if given goodness. Except those who are diligent with prayer.” al-Ma`arij: 19 - 22.
❖ Jundub ibn `Abdillah, Allah be pleased with him, said: “Allah’s Messenger said: ‘Amongst the nations before you there was a man who was wounded, and growing helpless with pain, he took a knife and cut his hand with it and the blood did not stop till he died. Allah said: “My slave hurried me with bringing death upon himself; I have forbidden him from the Garden.”’” [863] Reported by al-Bukhari (3464) and the wording is his, as well as Muslim (113). Quotes of the Predecessors and Scholars on Impatience

❖ `Ali ibn Abi Talib, Allah be pleased with him, said to al-Ash`ath ibn Qays: “If you are patient, what the Pen has written is exacted over you while you are rewarded. If you are impatient, what it has written is exacted over you while you are sinful.” [864] Adab al-Dunya wa al-Din, al-Mawardi (p. 288).
❖ `Ubayd ibn `Umayr said: “Helplessness is not for the eye to tear and the heart to sadden, rather it is the evil of statement and belief.” [865] `Idat al-Sabirin, Ibn al-Qayyim (p. 99).
❖ Some sages said: “If you are lamented by what escapes you of blessings, then you ought to lament over what does not befall you of calamity.” [866] Adab al-Dunya wa al-Din, al-Mawardi (p. 289). Categories of Impatience
Impatience over sin, that one jumps to sin upon impatiently. Impatience in calamities: the slave does not account the calamity as a means of purification or reward. He views it as evil which has struck him. This is impatience. He does this whilst showing resilience and not appearing except as being patient. [867] See: al-Sabr wa al-Thawab, Ibn Abi al-Dunya (p. 129). Impacts and Harms of Impatience [868] Fayd al-Qadir, al-Manawi (1/330).
Supplicating against oneself. Begets lamentation. Constant regret. Missing out on reward. Exasperating hardship. Increasing tribulation. Forms of Impatience
Wishing for death. Facepalming. Tearing clothes. Inciting sensibilities. Supplicating for destruction. Reasons for Being Impatient [869] Adab al-Dunya wa al-Din, al-Mawardi (p. 298).
Recalling the calamity and never forgetting it, continuously contemplating over it, finding no solace in said remembrance nor consolation. Sorrow and intense anguish, such that one cannot see past his hardship nor replacement for his lost one. One therefore increases in yearning through sorrow, and in panic through anguish. Excessive complaining, and spreading helplessness. Not habituating the self to face what it dislikes. Giving up on mending his problems, such that the grief of the calamity is coupled with the despair of giving up. Patience is lost as a result, one sees no way out. Weak faith and not seeking the aid of Allah in calamities. Means to Desisting from Impatience [870] Zad al-Ma`ad, Ibn al-Qayyim (4/192), with adaptation.
Strong faith. Remembrance of Allah. Patience over hardships. Expectations of calamities. Contentment with decree, realising that there is no repelling it. Knowing that impatience allows for the enemies’ gloating, and it hurts allies. Knowing that impatience angers Allah and overjoys the devil. Impatience in Proverbs and Poetry

❖ “This, and you are yet to see Tuhamah!” This is a parable struck for the man who feels incapable before appreciating what he is facing in the first place. [871] Jamharat al-Amthal, al-`Askari (2/364).
❖ “Whoever is impatient with evil today has done himself wrong.” This is said when a matter is rectified when it was once corrupt, meaning: there shall be no incapacitating evil henceforth. [872] Jamharat al-Amthal, al-`Askari (2/318).
❖ Imam Shafi`i, Allah have mercy upon him, said:

“Leave the days to do as they please
And be content when decree is exacted.

Feel not helpless for events of the night,
For worldly matters are ever perishing.

Your provision is not decreased by care,
Nor is it increased through arduousness.

Neither sorrow nor joy shall remain eternally,
Nor depression within you, nor comfort.” [873] Sayd al-Afkar, al-Qadi al-Mahdi (1/147).

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