| 2 Summary of Ethics

Hatred and Dislike

Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Hatred and Dislike

Bughd linguistically: is the opposite of love. Allah made one hated to the people (baghghadah) so they hated him (abghaduh). Baghda’ is the intense form of bughd (hatred). Tabaghada al-qawm is said when a people hate one another. [791] al-Mukhassas, Ibn Sidah (4/84); al-Misbah al-Munir, al-Fayyumi (1/56).

Bughd technically: is repulsion from the thing that is sought, and it is the opposite of love. [792] al-Tawqif `ala Muimmat al-Ta`rif, al-Manawi (p. 81).

Karahiyah linguistically: is the opposite of satisfaction and liking. It is said: karihtu al-shay’a karahatan wa karahiyatan (I disliked a thing a great dislike). Kurh - with a dammah - is difficulty. Karrahtu ilayhi al-shay’a takriha (I made something disliked to him a dislike) is the opposite of making something liked to another. [793] al-Sihah, al-Jawhari (6/2247); Maqayis al-Lughah, Ibn Faris (5/173).

Karahiyah technically: what is disliked is the opposite of what is beloved, taken from karah (dislike) that is the opposite of mahabbah (like, love). [794] al-Kuliyyat, al-Kafawi (p. 1408). The Difference between Dislike, Hatred, Desistance (Iba’), and Repulsion (Nufur al-Tab`) [795] al-Furuq al-Lughawiyyah, al-`Askari (p. 8, 104, 451).

Desistance is refusal, and one may dislike that which he is unable to desist from. Hatred may expand that which dislike cannot expand. It is, for example, said: ubghidu zayda (I hate Zayd), meaning: I hate to honour and benefit him. It is not said: akrahuh (I dislike him) in that same meaning. Nonetheless, dislike may be used in that which hatred is not used, such that, for example, it is said: akrahu hadha al-ta`am (I dislike this food) but ubghiduh (I hate it) is not used.

Unwillingness the other usage of karahah is the opposite of willingness, while repulsion is the opposite of desire. Man may willingly drink bitter medicine despite being repulsed by it, and if repulsion were the same as unwillingness it would have been impossible to simultaneously take place with willingness.Prohibition of Hatred and Dislike in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “Satan’s plan is to stir up hostility and hatred between you with intoxicants and gambling and to prevent you from remembering Allah and praying. Will you not then abstain?” al-Ma’idah: 91.
❖ Abu Hurayrah, Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Beware of supposition, for it is the most false of speech. Do not stalk, spy on, deceit, envy, hate, nor forsake one another. Be, slaves of Allah, brothers.” [796] Reported by al-Bukhari (6064), as well as Muslim (2563).
❖ al-Zubayr ibn al-`Awwam, Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet ﷺ said: “The disease of the nations before you is creeping towards you: envy and hatred, it is the cutter. I do not say that it cuts the hair, but it severs religiosity. By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, you will not enter the Garden until you believe, and you will not believe until you love each other. Shall I tell you about what will strengthen that for you? Spread greetings of peace among each other.” [797] Reported by al-Tirmidhi (2510) and Ahmad (1412). al-Tirmidhi said: “They differed in its narrations.” al-Mundhari graded its chain as good in al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib (4/31) and likewise al-Haytami in Jami` al-Zawa’id (8/33). al-Albani graded it as sound in Sahih Sunan al-Tirmidhi (2510). Quotes of the Predecessors and Scholars on Dislike

❖ Some of the companions said: “Whoever seeks the virtue of the worshippers, then let him reconcile among the people, and not place among them enmity and hatred.” [798] Tanbih al-Ghafilin, al-Samarqandi (p. 521).
❖ Ibn al-Qayyim said: “Hatred and dislike is the root of all desistance and its start.” [799] al-Jawab al-Kafi, Ibn al-Qayim (p. 192).
❖ al-Ghazali said: “Know that amiability is the fruit of good morals, and division is that of evil morals. Good morals necessitate loving, socialising, and alignment with one another, whilst evil morals necessitate hatred, envy, and misalignment. Whenever that which bears fruit is praiseworthy, likewise will be the fruit itself.” [800] Ihya’ `Ulum al-Din, al-Ghazali (2/157). Categories of Hatred and Dislike

Hatred is categorised into two:

The first: is prohibited from, reprehensible, and impermissible, and it is the one this section is concerned with.
The second: is commanded, and its possessor is rewarded. Among its forms is hatred and dislike for falsehood, disbelievers, transgressors, and criminals.Impacts of Hatred and Dislike

❖ They are a reason to fall into calumny and slander against others, and being prejudiced against them in disputes.
❖ They beget severe spite towards the hated.
❖ They are a reason for the spread of dangerous societal illnesses, threatening its cohesion and unity. For example, the spread of inciting rumours, having envy, and reprehensible competitiveness.
❖ They are a cause for the loss of safety and security in society.
❖ They cause a lack of affection in a single society, rather in a single family.
❖ Due to them, trust diminishes between members of society, such that you barely find any person who trusts another.
❖ Justice perishes in a society that is filled with hatred.
❖ Hatred leads to evil morals.Reasons for Falling into Hatred and Dislike 
Backbiting and gossiping. Lying and cheating. Harshness of heart, cruelty, and roughness. Protective jealousy in other than its place - it would lead to hatred and dislike. General injustice is among the reasons for hatred. Transgressing against other people’s rights. Favouring oneself with benefits and not giving them to those who deserve it. Betrayal and a lack of trustworthiness. Arrogance is a strong reason for hatred, for the arrogant hates the people and vice versa. Envy. It is among the biggest causes which make hatred rife among the masses. Means to Avoiding from Hatred and Dislike
Beneficence. Allah, exalted, says: “Good and evil cannot be equal. Repel evil with what is better and your enemy will become as close as an old and valued friend.” Fussilat: 34. Impartiality and fairness. Through impartiality, spite and dislike disappear, and qualities of respect, love, and competition towards good develop instead. Taking each other into account. This purifies souls from evil and dislike, increasing love and amiability. Patience. Some literary writers said: “Through patience upon disliked things are great gains made.” [801] Tashil al-Nazar, al-Mawardi (p. 26). Distancing oneself from anyone whose concern is to create enmity and dislike among people. This is through means like disputes, insults, backbiting, gossiping, envy, and other spiritual illnesses. Engaging in means that strengthen ties and imbed good relations, increasing love among the believers. This is through means like spreading greetings, giving gifts and presents, cooperation, burden sharing, and others. Distancing oneself from reprehensible competition for the perishing worldly life. It is among the greatest reasons for hating and disliking one another. Hatred and Dislike in Proverbs and Poetry [802] al-Adab al-Saghir, Ibn al-Muqaffa` (p. 38); al-Tamthil wa al-Hadarah, al-Tha`alibi (p. 444); al-Mustatraf fi Kulli Fann Mustazraf, al-Abshihi (p. 37).

❖ “Being needy but surrounded by love is better than being wealthy but surrounded by hatred.”
❖ “Arrogance is the leader of hatred.”
❖ “Abundant rebuke necessitates hatred.”
❖ The poet said:

“Allah has ordained that hatred destroys its people,
And that upon the aggressor does misfortune land.” [803] al-Sihr al-Halal fi al-Hikam wa al-Amthal, al-Hashimi (p. 68 ).

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