| 2 Summary of Ethics

Protective Jealousy

Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Protective Jealousy

Ghayrah linguistically: with a fathah, it is the verbal noun from the saying: ghar al-rajul `ala ahlih (the man was protective over his family). Ibn Sidah said: “A man has ghayrah over his wife, and the woman over her man; she shows ghayratan, ghayran, gharan, and ghiyaran (possessiveness, jealousy). [477] Mukhtar al-Sihah, al-Razi (p. 232); Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (5/34).

Ghayrah technically: is the man hating that another joins him in what is solely his right. [478] al-Kulliyyat, al-Kafawi (p. 671). Protective Jealousy in the Sunnah

❖ Anas, Allah be pleased with him, narrated: “While the Prophet ﷺ was in the house of one of his wives, one of the mothers of the believers sent a meal in a dish. The wife, at whose house the Prophet ﷺ was, struck the hand of the servant, causing the dish to fall and break. The Prophet ﷺ gathered the broken pieces of the dish and then started collecting on them the food which had been in the dish and said: ‘Your mother got jealous.’ Then he detained the servant till another dish was brought from the wife at whose house he was. He gave the sound dish to the wife whose dish had been broken and kept the broken one at the house where it had been broken.” [479] Reported by al-Bukhari (5225).
❖ Abu Hurayrah, Allah be pleased with him, narrates that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “The believer has protective jealousy, and Allah is more intense in that.” [480] Reported by Muslim (2761). Quotes of the Predecessors and Scholars on Protective Jealousy

❖ `A’ishah, Allah be pleased with her, said: “I used to get jealous of the women who offered themselves to Allah’s Messenger ﷺ and say: ‘A woman offers herself?!’ Then Allah, exalted, revealed: ‘You may defer any one of them you wish and take to yourself any you wish; and if you desire any you have set aside no sin is chargeable to you.’ al-Ahzab: 51. I said: ‘It seems to me that your Lord hastens to satisfy your desire.’” [481] Reported by al-Bukhari (4788) and Muslim (1464) and the wording is his.
❖ Ibn al-Qayyim said: “The origin of the religion is protective jealousy. Whoever does not have it, has no religion. It protects the heart, so protects the limbs, then repels evil and obscenities. A lack of protective jealousy kills the heart, killing the limbs, and it thence has no potential for repulsion. Protective jealousy in the heart is like a strength which repels illness and fights it. If there is no such strength, the illness will find its place to enter with no resistance, and so it takes hold, and the body is destroyed. Likewise, its parable is that of buffalo horns which it uses to protect itself and its young. If they break, its enemy will feel empowered to attack.” [482] al-Jawab al-Kafi, Ibn al-Qayyim (p. 68). Categories of Protective Jealousy

Protective jealousy is of two types: jealousy for the beloved and jealousy over them.
As for that jealousy which is for the beloved, then it is that type which brings about fervour and anger when they are taken advantage of, insulted, or harmed by their enemy. The one who loves the one in such a scenario is angered and his protective jealousy overtakes him to change in nature and defend them, fighting those who harmed the beloved. This is the protective jealousy of those who have true love for each other. It is also the jealousy which the messengers and their followers had for Allah, that He be worshipped in association, His sanctity be desecrated, or His commands disobeyed. Jealousy over the beloved is the disdain of the lover and his fervour that he should share his beloved with anyone. This is also of two types: jealousy that another joins him in his love for his beloved, and the jealousy of the beloved that his lover should love another with him. [483] Rawdat al-Muhibbin, Ibn al-Qayyim (p. 347). Benefits of Protective Jealousy
Protective jealousy is a sign of strong faith in Allah. It is a quality Allah loves, so long as it is for the preservation of the Muslims’ honour. It is the moral backdrop which preserves the veil and repels flaunting, bedizenment, and intermixing. [484] Hirasat al-Fadilah, Bakr Abu Zyd (p. 87). Protective jealousy protects the heart, protecting for it its limbs, repelling evil and obscenities. [485] al-Jawab al-Kafi, Ibn al-Qayyim (p. 68). It is one of the manifestations of anger for the sake of Allah - if one witnesses the sanctity of Allah desecrated. One of the forces for forbidding wrong in society. It purifies society from ignobility. It is a reason to preserve one’s honour. Reasons for the Waning of Protective Jealousy
Weak faith. Excessive sinning. Ignorance of the religion. Little bashfulness. Imitating the disbelievers and the corrupt. Corrupt media outlets. The spread of wrong-doing. Means to Acquiring Endearment
Raising young girls upon modesty and bashfulness in clothing and other than that. Raising young boys upon protective jealousy, allowing them, for example, to talk to sellers in markets as opposed to the girl or woman. Not desisting from those things which destroy protective jealousy, like lewd magazines and its like, which must all be removed from the houses of the Muslims. Returning to our religious values and internalising them. Emphasising the role of the man. Raising awareness generally in society, through media, educational, and religious outlets. Exalting the issue of one’s honour, and that messing around with it is loss and destruction. [486] See: al-Ghirah `ala al-Mar’ah, `Abdullah al-Mani` (p. 235), copied from the caset al-Ghirah `ala al-A`rad. Examples of Endearment from the Life of the Prophets and Companions

❖ Abu Hurayrah, Allah be pleased with him, narrates that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Dawud, the prophet, used to be intensely protective and jealous. If he leaves his house, its doors are shut and no one enters upon his family until he returns. He left his house some day, and the doors were locked. His wife approached, inspecting the house, and she found a man standing in the middle of the house. She said to those in the house: ‘How did this man enter the house while it is closed off? By Allah, we are going to be exposed in front of Dawud.’ Dawud came and the man was still there. Dawud said: ‘Who are you?’ He replied: ‘I am the one who does not fear kings, and nothing escapes me.’ Dawud said: ‘By Allah, you are the Angel of Death. I welcome the command of Allah.’ Dawud stayed in the place where his soul was taken until the sun had risen over him. Sulayman said to the birds: ‘Shade Dawud.’ They did so until the land became dark around them. Sulayman said: ‘Beat your wings one at a time.’” - Abu Hurayrah said: “Allah’s Messenger ﷺ was showing us how with his hands. He ﷺ demonstrated to us what the birds did. He ﷺ grasped his hand into a fist. He was being very demonstrative [487] Musarrihiyyah: a verbal noun from tasrih - being explicit. Ya and ta of the root are part of the morphological structure. Meaning, he was being explicit in his demonstrations and explanations so that what was said was clear, using hand gestures and illustrations in the process. See also: Hashiyat al-Sindi `ala Musnad Ahmad (2/725). that day.” [488] Reported by Ahmad (9432). Ibn Kathir graded its chain as good and its narrators as trustworthy in al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah (2/16). al-Haythami said in Majma` al-Zawa’id (8/209): “In it there is al-Muttalib ibn `Abdillah ibn Hantab who is trustworthy according to Abu Zar`ah and others. The rest of its narrators are those of the authentic narrations.”
❖ `Abdullah ibn `Amr ibn al-`As, Allah be pleased with him, narrates that some persons from Banu Hashim were at the house of Asma’ bint 'Umais when Abu Bakr also entered - she was at that time his wife. Abu Bakr saw this and disapproved of it and he made a mention of that to Allah’s Messenger ﷺ and said: “I did not see but good only in her.” Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger ﷺ said: “Certainly, Allah has made her innocent from such insinuations.” Then, Allah’s Messenger ﷺ stood on the pulpit and said: “After this day, no man should enter the house of another in his absence, but only when he is accompanied by one person or two.” [489] Reported by Muslim (2173).

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