| 2 Summary of Ethics


Overall Meaning: The Meaning of Tolerance

Samahah linguistically: the root s-m-h indicates ease and fluency. musamahah : is facilitation. [314] Maqayis al-Lughah, Ibn Faris (3/99); Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzoor (3/99).

Samahah technically: is used to refer to that which is given without obligation as a form of bounty. It is also used to refer to being lenient with others in one’s dealings. This is done through making things easy and softer upon those involved, and avoiding overdoing matters. It also refers to the tolerance portrayed by Muslims in their dealing with other people. [315] al-Ta`rifat, al-Jurjani (p. 160), Nadrat al-Na`im, a number of authors (6/2287). Commandments of Tolerance and Encouragement towards it in the Qur’an and Sunnah

❖ Allah, exalted, says: “Take to pardoning and command what is right: pay no attention to the ignorant.” al-A`raf: 199. al-Sa`di said: “This verse encapsulates good morals with the people, and how one ought to treat them.” [316] Tafsir al-Sa`di (p. 313).
❖ Allah, exalted, says: “If the debtor is in difficulty, then delay things until matters become easier for him; still, if you were to write it off as an act of charity, that would be better for you, if only you knew.” al-Baqarah: 280. Allah guided those who gave out debts to facilitate for the debtors, teaching them leniency and tolerance with those in difficulty. [317] al-Akhlaq al-Islamiyyah, `Abd al-Rahman al-Maydani (2/467).
❖ Jabir ibn `Abdillah, Allah be pleased with them both, narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Allah have mercy on one who is lenient when he buys, sells, and seeks back his debts.” [318] Reported by al-Bukhari (2076).
❖ `Abdullah ibn Mas`ud, Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said: “Shall I not tell you of the one for whom the Fire is made unlawful, and he has been made unlawful for the Fire? It is so for every close, light, easy-going person.” [319] Reported by al-Tirmidhi (2488) and this is his wording, as well as Ahmad (3938). al-Tirmdhi said: “It is sound, strange.” al-Mundhari graded its chain as good in al-Tarhib wa al-Tarhib (3/26) and al-Busiri in Ithaf al-Khiyarat al-Maharah (3/285), and he said: “It has another route that testify for it.” Meaning: he who is comfortable in fulfilling others’ needs; or that he is tolerant in his dealings - buying, selling, collecting debts, and judgement. [320] Marqat al-Mafatih, al-Qari (8/3179). Benefits of Tolerance

❖ The tolerant, lenient, soft person is the happiest, most satisfied person.
❖ He receives decree with contentment and submissiveness, regardless of how much the self may dislike it.
❖ He gains the greatest share of the people’s love and trust in him.
❖ He draws to him worldly benefit from his tolerance, since people like to deal with one with that quality, resulting in abundant good for him.
❖ If he seeks solely the Face of Allah, then he is granted Allah’s pleasure and immeasurable success in the Afterlife.Forms of Tolerance
Tolerance in treating others, by being soft and lenient with them, even if they be servants. Tolerance in buying and selling. Tolerance in fulfilling others’ needs. Tolerance when collecting back debts. Means to Acquiring Tolerance [321] al-Akhlaq al-Islamiyyah, `Abd al-Rahman al-Maydani (2/451), with adaptation.
Contemplating what Allah promised those of tolerance, and the worldly benefit that it brings. Contemplating the divine warnings given to those who are stern, intense, and difficult, and what reaches them of harm and suffering. Certitude in divine decree. Examples of Tolerance from the Life of the Prophet ﷺ, Companions, and Predecessors

❖ The Prophet ﷺ is the best model for tolerance, and he reached its pinnacle. Anas, Allah be pleased with him, narrates to us how the Prophet ﷺ treated him excellently, saying: “I served the Prophet ﷺ for ten years. He never said to me: ‘Uff!’ or ‘Why did you do this?’ or ‘You should have done that.’” [322] Reported by al-Bukhari (6038) and this is his wording, as well as Muslim (2309).
❖ From his tolerance ﷺ was his fulfilling the needs of others. Anas, Allah be pleased with him, narrates: “Even the slave girl would take the hand of Allah’s Messenger ﷺ and go with him where she wishes.” [323] Reported hung by al-Bukhari (6072) and this is his wording, and Ibn Majah reported it connected (4177) and so did Ahmad (13256).
❖ During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, Allah be pleased with him, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Allah be pleased with him, wrote to him regarding the contractual agreement for non-Muslim citizenship for the people of al-Hirah, Iraq - as they were Christian - saying: “For any old, weak man among them, or one who has been afflicted with illness, or was rich then got poor and the folk of his religion give charity to him, I have uplifted the citizenship taxation (jizyah) from him, and took care of him and his dependants from the Muslim treasury.” [324] Kitab al-Kharaj, Abu Yusuf (p. 157).
❖ During the caliphate of `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz, Allah have mercy upon him, he wrote to `Adiyy ibn Arta’ah, saying: “Search among your subjects for non-Muslim citizens who got old in age, weak in strength, and are no longer able to earn, and spend over them from the Muslim treasury what will rectify their affairs.” [325] al-Amwal, al-Qasim ibn Salam (p. 56). Signs of Tolerance
Being brightfaced and meeting people pleasantly and gladly, joining them in their conversations with fruitful, genuine contribution. Being foremost in greeting people, shaking their hands, and conversing with them. Being a pleasant companion, and overlooking matters without being stern in dealing with them. Good-heartedness in Poetry

Imam Shafi`i said:

“Be such a man who is patient in tribulations,
Having tolerance and loyalty as your qualities.

Wish not for tolerance from one who is miserly -
In fire, there is no water to quench one’s thirst.” [326] Diwan al-Imam al-Shafi`i (p. 17).

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