Munificence, Magnanimity, Generosity, and Expenditure

Overall Meaning: Meaning of munificence, magnanimity, generosity, and expenditure:
Jud linguistically: It is jawd, which is abundant rain. Jad al-rajul, fa-huwa jawad (the man exercised generosity, so he is generous). It is he who gives without being asked, saving the asker from the humiliation of asking. [160] al-Sihah, al-Jawhari (2/461); Taj al-`Arus, al-Zabidi (7/527).
Jud technically: It is a characteristic which incites its possessor to spend without return. [161] al-Mu`jam al-Wasit (p.146).
Karam linguistically: It is the opposite of lu’m (ignobility). Karuma al-rajulu yukrimu karaman, fahuwa karim (the man exercised magnanimity, he is doing so, so he is magnanimous). [162] Islah al-Mantiq, Ibn al-Sukayt (p. 51); Jamharat al-Lughah, Ibn Durayd (2/797).
Karam technically: It is easily giving. [163] al-Ta`rifat, al-Jurjani (p. 184). It is also said: It is giving that which is dear and beneficial with a sound heart. [164] al-Shifa bi-Ta`rif Huquq al-Mustafa, al-Qadi `Iyad (1/230).
Sakha’ linguistically: It is sakhawah and sakha’ is jud (munificence). He who is sakhiyy is the jawad (munificent). Its plural is askhiya’ and sukhwa’. So-and-so yatasakhkha upon his companions, if he exaggerates and is excessive in sakha’. Innahu la-sakhiyyu al-nafsi `anh (surely, he is indeed generous in himself against him). [165] Lisan al-`Arab, Ibn Manzur (14/373).
Sakha’ technically: It is jud, or giving what ought to be given to whom ought to be given. Or it is giving what is hoped for before the pleading of he who asks. It is also said that it is a state of a person that drives him to give what is received, whether one expends himself in doing so or not. This is a characteristic. [166] al-Dhari`ah ila Makarim al-Shari`ah, al-Raghib (p.286); al-Tawqif `ala Muhimmat al-Ta`arif, al-Manawi (p. 192).
Badhl linguistically: If one does badhl of a thing, he gives and spends it. Badhl is the opposite of man` (prevention). Whoever’s soul is comfortable giving a thing, he is badhil (expending). A man is said to be badhdhal and badhul, if his expenditure of wealth is plentiful. [167] Kitab al-`Ayn, al-Khalil (8/187); Mu`jam Diwan al-Adab, al-Farabi (2/138); Tahdhib al-Lughah, al-Azhari (14/312); Mukhtar al-Sihah, al-Razi (p. 31).
Badhl technically: It is giving with a sound soul. [168] al-Tawqif `ala Muhimmat al-Ta`arif, al-Manawi (p. 73).

Difference between munificence, bountifulness (ifdal), and bestowal (in`am):
Benign bountifulness is more general than bestowal and munificence. It is also said that it is more specific than them, since bountifulness is giving with compensation, whereas the others are an absolute form of giving. Magnanimity, if it is with wealth, then it is munificence; and if it is with prevention of harm whilst able, then it is pardoning; and if it is with expending the self, then it is bravery.

Commandments of munificence, magnanimity, and generosity and encouragement towards them in the Qur’an and Sunnah:
❖ Allah, exalted, says, “Has the story of Abraham’s honoured guests reached you? When they entered his presence and greeted, ‘Peace!’ He replied, ‘Peace be upon you!’ ‘These are an unfamiliar people.’ Then he slipped off to his family and brought a fat roasted calf.” (al-Dhariyat: 24 - 26) Meaning, Ibrahim, peace be upon him, served them himself, and was swift in hosting them. [169] Tafsir Ibn Jusayy (2/308).
❖ He, exalted, also says, “Those who give, out of their own possessions, by night and by day, in private and in public, will have their reward with their Lord: no fear for them, nor will they grieve.” (al-Baqarah: 274)
❖ The Messenger of Allah ﷺ said, “Allah is Munificent, He loves the munificent. He loves lofty character and hates lowly morals.” [170] Reported by Ibn Abi Shaybah in al-Musannaf (37149), al-Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-Iman (10840) form the narration of Talhah ibn `Ubaydullah ibn Kariz, Allah be pleased with him. al-Albani authenticated it in Sahih al-Jami` (1744).

Quotes of the predecessors and scholars on magnanimity, munificence, and generosity:
❖ Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, Allah be pleased with him, said, “Munificence is the protector of people’s honour.” [171] Rabi` al-Abrar wa Nusus al-Akhyar, al-Zamakhshari (4/357).
❖ `Ali, Allah be pleased with him, said, “Generosity is giving which is itself initiated. As for that which is incited from asking, then it is shyness and diffidence.” [172] The previous source (4/380).
❖ Some sages said, “The origin of all virtue is magnanimity, and the origin of magnanimity is purifying the self away from the prohibited, its generosity specifically and generally, and all good characteristics branch off from it.” [173] al-Mustatraf fi Kulli Fannin Mustazraf, al-Abshihi (p. 168).

Categories of munificence:
Munificence is of five categories: 
1- Divine munificence: Which is giving to each person depending on them being deserving.
2- Munificence of kings: Which is giving wealth to the masses, their rich and poor.
3- Munificence of the merchants, those less than kings: Which is giving wealth when asked.
4- Munificence of the vile: Which is giving to those of regret, for intercourse, and drinking.
5- Munificence of the commoners: Which is being good to family and those of close relations. [174] al-Dhari`ah ila Makarim al-Shari`ah, al-Raghib (p. 288).

Benefits of magnanimity, munificence, and generosity:
1- That they are a sign of complete faith, and sound Islam. 
2- They are evidence of having a good opinion of Allah, exalted. 
3- Honour in this life, and good mention in the next. 
4- The magnanimous is loved by the Creator, the Magnanimous, and he is close to the rest of creation. 
5- They incite societal cohesion and love among the people. 
6- Magnanimity is a means of blessings in one’s wealth and life. 
7- They purify the self and do away with lowly characteristics like selfishness, egotism, and stinginess. 
8- They solve the problem of fulfilling the needs of the needy from persons of a single community. 

Forms of magnanimity, munificence, and generosity: [175] al-Akhlaq al-Islamiyyah wa Ususuha, `Abd al-Rahman al-Maydani (2/361-363), summarised and adapted.
1- Giving from one’s wealth things that will be benefited from.
2- Giving from one’s knowledge.
3- Giving advice. The munificent and magnanimous is not stingy with his brother in advice.
4- Giving from the self. The munificent gives from his own being, of gentleness and tenderness. Also, from the latter is giving from one’s strength in terms of physical servitude.
5- Giving then ascends to the level of sacrificing one’s life itself, like those fighting in the path of Allah. He is generous with his life to elevate the word of Allah and give victory to his religion, seeking the pleasure of Allah. 

Means to acquiring magnanimity, munificence, and generosity:
1- A good soul. 
2- Love of doing good. 
3- Allah giving one ability and success to give and be generous. 
4- Encouraging those of virtue to give bountifully. 
5- The natural conditions of an Islamic society and its organic needs for cooperation and sociability, effectively creating a sound, sustainable economy. 

Examples of magnanimity, munificence, and generosity from the life of the Prophets, Companions, and righteous predecessors:
❖ The Prophet ﷺ was never asked anything in return for Islam except that he gave it. A man came to him, so he gave him sheep that filled a valley. This man then returned to his people saying, “My people, accept Islam, for Muhammad gives the giving of he who does not fear poverty.” [176] Reported by Muslim (2312).
❖ `Umar ibn al-Khattab, Allah be pleased with him, said, “Allah’s Messenger ﷺ commanded us to be charitable. He commanded this on one occasion when I had some wealth. I said to myself, ‘Today, if there ever is such a day, I shall finally beat Abu Bakr.’ I came to the Prophet ﷺ with half my wealth. He said, ‘What did you keep for your family?’ I said, ‘Its like.’ Abu Bakr then came with everything he had. He ﷺ asked, ‘Abu Bakr, what did you keep for your family?’ He replied, ‘I left for them Allah and His Messenger.’ I then said to myself, ‘I will never be able to beat him.’” [177] Reported by Abu Dawud (1678), al-Tirmidhi (3675), and this is his wording. Al-Tirmidhi said, “It is sound, authentic.” al-Hakim authenticated it in al-Mustadrak (1/574), and he said, “This is so according to the conditions of Muslim.” al-Nawawi also authenticated in al-Majmu` (6/236).
❖ Muhammad ibn Sabih said, “When Abu al-Zinad arrived at Kufah for the sake of giving charity, a man spoke to Hammad ibn Abi Sulayman to get a man to speak to Abu al-Zinad on his behalf, seeking help in some aspects of his work. Hammad said, ‘How much does your companion seek from Abu al-Zinad, that he gets from him?’ He replied, ‘One-thousand dirham.’ He said, ‘I command five-thousand dirham for him, and he does not need to come see me directly.’ He said, ‘Allah recompense you with goodness. That is more than he hoped for.’ `Uthman said, ‘Ibn al-Sammak said, “Another man spoke to him that he wished to transfer his son from one school to another, so he said to him, ‘We normally give thirty dirham a month to teachers, but we made it one-hundred for your companion. Leave the boy where he is.’”’” [178] al-Karam wa al-Jud wa Sakha’ al-Nufus, al-Barjalani (p. 57).

Examples in the magnanimity of the Arabs and their generosity before Islam:
❖ Hatim al-Ta’i was among the most popular to be known for his generosity and magnanimity from the Arabs; so much so that he became a parable in those characteristics. From his attributes was that he would free the war-prisoner, feed the hungry, give food, spread greetings, and never did he ever refuse a person that came to him with some need of his. [179] Ihya’ `Ulum al-Din, al-Ghazali (2/359).

Adages, proverbs, and poetry in magnanimity and munificence:
❖ “Hosting greater than travellers’ supplies.” This is from the parables of Quraysh which they struck for three of their most munificent clansmen: Musafir ibn Abi `Amr ibn Umayyah, Abu Umayyah ibn al-Mughirah, and al-Aswad ibn `Abd al-Muttalib ibn Asad ibn `Abd al-`Uzza. They were nicknamed ‘Zad al-Rakb’ - ‘Travellers’ Supplies,’ because when others travelled with them, they did not bring their own supplies.
❖ “More magnanimous than a lion,” because when a lion is satisfied, he leaves off that which he passes of potential prey and does not engage with it.
❖ al-Muntasir ibn Bilal al-Ansari said,
“Munificence is noble while miserliness is hateful.
Not equal are miserliness and munificence to Allah.
In poverty there is repute, while richness is comfort;
People, in wealth, are either endowed or limited.” [180] Rawdat al-`Uqala’, Ibn Hibban al-Busti.