| 2 Bukhari hadiths

Narrated Ibn Abi `Awfaa (may Allah be pleased with him): We were afflicted with famine during the besiege of Khaybar, and when it was the day of (the battle of) Khaybar, we slaughtered the domestic donkeys and when the pots got boiling (with their meat), Allah's Messenger made an announcement that all the pots should be upset and that nobody should eat anything of the meat of the donkeys. We thought that the Prophetﷺprohibited that because the one fifth share had not been taken out of the booty (i.e. donkeys); other people said, "He prohibited eating them for ever." The sub-narrator added, "I asked Sa’eed ibn Jubayr who said, 'He has made the eating of donkeys' meat illegal definitely and indefinitely [always].”

Commentary : Allah has legislated, for His servants, laws that take their interests into account and has legislated what is good for them in their religion and worldly affairs.Henceforth, Allah, the Sublime, has permitted for them the good and pure things to eat and prohibited them from those things that contain harm to them.Many events occurred during the battle of Khaybar wherein provisions relating to that which is lawful and that which is forbiddenfrom food, drink, spoils and so on were revealed.
In this hadeeth, ‘Abdullah ibn Abi Awfaa (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Muslims were hit by famine, that is, situations of extreme hunger - due to lack of food, and that was during the Khaybar invasion, in the seventh year of the Hijrah.Khyber was a town inhabited by the Jews, 153 km away from al-Madeenah, toward the north on the road to the Levant.The Jews had gathered there, so the Prophet ﷺ wanted to secure al-Madeenah from their evil.
When it was the day of the Battle of Khaybar and the forts were conquered,and the Muslim army entered the town, they confiscated the domesticated donkeys used by humans for their needs.They slaughtered them with knives at their slaughterhouse and cooked them, without the permission of the Prophet ﷺ.When the pots started boiling with meat inside, a crier for the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, was Aboo Talhah (may Allah be pleased with him), proclaimed, “Overturn the pots,” meaning that the Prophetﷺ had commanded them to empty the pots with their contents and that they should not taste anything of the meat of the domestic donkeys.
‘Abdullah ibn Abee Awfaa relates that some of the Companions said,“The Prophet ﷺ forbade it because the fifth share was not taken from it.”Some others said thatthe Prophetﷺ forbade it “definitely and indefinitely [always].”This is the position which the Follower Sa’eed ibn Jubayr settled on, and he stated, “The Prophet ﷺ prohibited it forever.”
This hadeeth shows that it is forbidden to eat the meat of domesticated donkeys, and it demonstrates hastening to change the evil and to remove it when it appears..

Narrated `Amr ibn Dinaar:I was sitting with Jaabir ibn Zayd and `Amr ibn Aws;so Bajaalahnarrated to them while they were sitting at the steps of Zamzamthat in the year 70 after Hijrah, Mus`ab ibn Al-Zubayr was the leader of the pilgrims of Basrah. He added: I was the clerk of Jaz’ ibn Mu’aawiyyah, the paternal uncle of al-Ahnaf. A letter came from `Umar ibn Al-Khattab(may Allah be pleased with him) one year before his death, which contained the following: " Separate between each relative among the Magians " `Umar did not take the Jizyah from the Magian infidels till `Abd al-Rahmaan ibn `Awf testified that Allah's Messengerﷺhad taken the Jizyah from the Magians of Hajar.

Commentary : The Prophet ﷺ and those after him from the Rightly Guided Caliphs would send out missions, companies, and armies, in order to spread Islam, especially after the Treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah, and after the conquest of Makkah. Whoever made a treaty with them and entered Islam, his blood and wealth were protected.However, whoever opposed and did not enter it, they were given a choice between paying the Jizyah or fighting.
In this hadeeth, the Taabi’ee ‘Amr ibn Dinaar reports that he was sitting with Jaabir ibn Zayd and ‘Amr ibn Aws. Bajaalah ibn ‘Abdah– who was among the senior Tab’een – mentioned a narration that happened in the year seventy of the Hijrah.That was the year in which Mus’ab ibn al-Zubayr, the governor of Iraq, performed the Hajj on behalf of his brother, ‘Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr, who had taken over the caliphate then and was ruling most of the Islamic Lands.Mus’ab performed Hajj with the people of Basrah.Bajaalah ibn ‘Abdah mentioned the narration at the steps of Zamzam.These were special steps then situated at the well of Zamzam down which it was descended to the bottom of the well to draw out the water.He said, “I used to be the scribe of Jiz’ ibn Mu’aawiyah, the paternal uncle of al-Ahnaf ibn Qays.He was the governor of ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) over al-Ahwaaz in the eastern region of Iraq.The letter of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) came to us a year before his death,” in other words, in the year twenty-two of the Hijrah, that is because ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was martyred in the year twenty-three of the Hijrah.The order was: “Separate between each relative among the Magi (who were fire worshipers).” This could carry the meaning ofcancelling the marriages conducted between the close relatives among them(marriages that are regarded as illegal in Islam: a relative of this sort being called Mahram.So, aman would be separated from his mother or a brother away from his sister so as to prevent them from making apparent this aspect of their religion.This is similar to his stipulation for the Christians to stop displaying their cross and creed so that the weak Muslims were not tempted thereby and so that the symbols of disbelief did not enjoy emergence or superiority under Islam.
Then he reported that ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) did not take the Jizyah from the Magians. Jizyah is a specific small amount that was taken from non-Muslims under the protection of the Muslim state and others.It was named thus as a recompense for protecting their blood.‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) was of the opinion that it should only be taken from the People of the Book, the Jews and Christians, until ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf witnessed that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to collect it from the Magi of Hajar; these were a people of Bahrain.In those days the term Bahrain was used to geographically encompass Bahrain, as well as al-Ahsaa and al-Qateef in the eastern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.These areas were conquered in the time of the Prophet ﷺ, in the eighth or the tenth year of the Hijrah at the hands of al-‘Alaa ibn al-Hadramee.
This hadeeth shows that the honour of Islam and its symbols should be manifested, and the display of the rituals and customs of the infidels in the lands of Islam should be prevented.
It shows that the Jizyah is taken from the People of the Book and from the Magi as well.
It teaches us to only resort to the rulings that Allah and His Messenger ﷺhave dictated and never go beyond them. .

Narrated `Amr ibn `Awf Al-Ansaaree: Allah's Messengerﷺsent Aboo 'Ubaydah ibn Al-Jarraah to Bahrain to collect the Jizyah. Allah's Messengerﷺhad established peace with the people of Bahrain and appointed Al-`Alaa' ibn Al-Hadramee as their governor. When Aboo 'Ubaydah came from Bahrain with the money, the Ansaar heard of Aboo 'Ubaydah's arrival which coincided with the time of the Fajr prayer with the Prophetﷺ. When Allah's Messengerﷺled them in the Fajr prayer and finished, the Ansaar approached him, and he looked at them and smiled on seeing them and said, "I feel that you have heard that Aboo. 'Ubaydah has brought something?" They said, "Yes, O Allah's Messenger! He said, "Rejoice and hope for what will please you! By Allah, I am not afraid of your poverty, but I am afraid that you will lead a life of luxury as past nations did, whereupon you will compete with each other for it, as they competed for it, and it will destroy you as it destroyed them."

Commentary : Poverty and prosperity are both trials from Allah; Exalted is He, and tribulations with which Allah tests His chosen servants so that the forbearance of those who are patient and the gratitude of the grateful are revealed.The Prophet ﷺ used to seek Allah’s protection from poverty and used to warn about the temptations of richness and wealth.
In this hadeeth, ‘Amr ibn ‘Awf al-Muzanee reports that the Messenger of Allahﷺ sent Aboo ‘Ubaydah ibn al-Jarraah (may Allah be pleased with him) to Bahrain to bring its Jizyah.This is the tax that was imposed on the Magi, who were among its residents in lieu of leaving them to live peacefully and granting them protection after he had made a pact with them on that.Bahrain in those days was a term used for a vast land that covers present-day Bahrain, as well as al-Ahsaa and al-Qateef, situated in the eastern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.This area was conquered in the eighth year of the Hijrah.The Prophet ﷺ appointed al-Munthiribn Saawa as the governor of the region.Then, when he passed away, the Prophet ﷺ appointed al-‘Alaa ibn al-Hadramee as the governor.
When Aboo ‘Ubaydah brought this wealth, it happened to coincide with the time of Fajr, when the people attended the prayers.After the Prophet ﷺ completed the prayer and turned away from it and turned to the people, the Ansaar presented themselves in front of him.It was as if they requested something through this gesture due to their being well aware of the Prophet’s noble character.They wanted to distribute the wealth brought by Aboo ‘Ubaydah between them.They did that at that time because they were overburdened by the dire need and hunger which they endured, and not because of their greediness for worldly pleasures or for their interest in it.The Prophet ﷺ understood what they wanted, and he smiled, and then he said, “I think you have heard that Aboo ‘Ubaydah has brought something?”They replied, “Of course, O Messenger of Allah.”Thereupon, the Prophet ﷺ said, “Receive good news and be anticipating”i.e. be hopeful of what will please you.This is a kind of calming them down from the hardship which they were in, and good news for them by hastening the prosperity upon them.
Then heﷺswore by Allah that he did not worry about poverty afflicting them; however, he feared that the world wouldbe offered to them, meaning prosperity and excessive wealth, as it was offered to those nations before them.Thereafter they may engage in acquiring it, which could lead to their downfall, due to conflicts concerning it, inclination towards it and engagement with it by turning away from the hereafter, as happened to the nations before them.
In this statement, there is a warning about what would happen in the future, and allthat the Prophet ﷺ informed of really happened.Their economy prospered and they became affluent afterwards; hence, mutual jealousy and in-fighting occurred. All thattestifies to the truthfulness of the information that the Prophetﷺ foretold.
This hadeeth shows that there is no aberration in seeking gifts from the leader, and that the ruler should give good news to his followers and should expand their hopes.
It highlights that competition in worldly matters may drag one to the destruction of one’s religion..

Narrated Jubayr ibn Haiyyah: `Umar sent the Muslims to theoutskirts ofbig cities to fight the disbelievers. When Al-Hurmuzaan embraced Islam, `Umar said to him. "I would like to consult you regarding these cities which I intend to invade." Al-Hurmuzaan said, "Yes, the example of these cities and their inhabitants who are the enemies of the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; if one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Persia. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau." So, `Umar sent us (to Khosrau) appointing Al-Nu`maan ibn Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, "Let one of you talk to me!" Al-Mugheerah replied, "Ask whatever you wish." The other asked, "Who are you?" Al-Mugheerah replied, "We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah alone or give Jizyah (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:-- “Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master." Al-Nu' maan said to Al-Mugheerah, "If you had participated in a similar battle, in the company of Allah's Messengerﷺhe would not have blamed you for waiting, nor would he have disgraced you. But I accompanied Allah's Messenger in many battles, and it was his custom that if he did not fight early by daytime, he would wait till the wind had started blowing and the time for the prayer was due (i.e. after midday).

Commentary : In this hadeeth, the Taabi’ee Jubayr ibn Hayyah reports that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) – during his caliphate – sent fighters to the outskirts of big cities.It means that he sent them to different cities and towns to fight the polytheists. However,Hurmuzaan, one of the leaders of the Persians, whose real name was Rustum, entered Islam willingly.He embraced Islam after the Battle of al-Qaadisiyyah, which happened in the year fourteen of the Hijrah.‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) drew him closer to him and would consult him [concerning the state of affairs of the Persians].This occurred after the defeat of the Persians and after the Muslims occupied the Metropolises of Persia.‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) told him that he would consult him about these battles,i.e.the battles of Persia, Isfahan, and Azerbaijan.This was because he was more aware of their affairs than anyone else.Hurmuzaanagreed to give advice to ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), and he gave an example about this land, meaning, about its campaign.He explained that its example in terms of the people residing in it among the enemies of the Muslims is as the example of a bird having a head, two wings, and legs.If one of the wings is clipped, the two legs with a wing and head will still stand up to move.If the other wing is clipped, then the two legs and the head will still stand up to move forward. However, if it is slaughtered (meaning beheaded), then the two legs, the wings, and the head become immobile, the whole body will become useless.If the head is removed, everything else will fall apart.The head here was Kosrae;one wing was Caesar (Qaysar), the emperor of the Romans, and the other wing was the Persians.Then, he gave advice to ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) to command the Muslims to set out to fight and to start the fight withKosrae, as he was the head, and his beheading would entail clipping the two wings.
When it was the twentieth year of the Hijrah, ‘Umar took the warriors out to battle and appointed al-Nu’maan ibn Muqarrin (may Allah be pleased with him) as their commander.The army set out at night until they had entered the land of the enemy, Nahawand. Now it is an Iranian city which is situated in the highlands toward the south of the Zagros Mountains.The governor of Kosrae came out to attack them – he was known as Bundaar – in an army of forty thousand strong men from the people of the Persian mountains and Kerman (which is now an Iranian city which is situated in the central region of the country), and with the people of other regions too, such as Nahawand and Isfahan (Isfahan is now an Iranian city and the provincial capital of the province of Isfahan, 340 km away from Tehran).A hundred and ten thousand enemy soldiers set out to counterattack the Muslim army.A translator stood up and said, “A spokesperson should speak to me.”Al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah replied, “Ask whatever you wish to ask.”He asked him, “Who are you, people?” He asked purposefully in the context of a person who somehow does not know them with the intention of belittling them. Al-Mugheerah answered, “We are a people from the Arabs who were once in anunfortunate state and in severe calamity.We would suck the skins (meaning the skins of the animals [to survive]).”This is a metaphor for having very little food and he meant thereby hunger.“We would wear wool.”That is a metaphor for having very little clothing.“We used to worship trees and stones.”This is an expression for their severe ignorance.They remained in that state until the Exalted and Mightily Majestic Lord of the earths and heavens, “sent a Prophet amongst us, whose father and mother were known to us.”This means they were fully aware of the family tree of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.He meant thereby to venerate the Messenger of Allahﷺ and to exalt him and purify him from the belief that he came to create bloodbath.“Our Prophet and the Messenger of Our Lord ﷺ commanded us to fight you until you worship Allah Alone or that you pay us the Jizyah.”The Persians used to be Magi, worshipping fire.
He continued, “Our Prophet ﷺ has transmitted to us the message from Our Lord that anyone amongst us killed in fighting for the cause of Allah, then he goes to the bliss in Paradise, and no Paradise of that sort has ever been seen before. As for the one who stays alive amongst us and has not been martyred, then he attains victory and owns your necks (you) by imprisoning you.”In this statement, there is an indication that a Muslim fights until he attains either victory or martyrdom.
Al-Nu’maan (may Allah be pleased with him) delayed the fighting, while al-Mugheerah wanted to fight straight after his statement with theinterpreter.Al-Nu’maan told al-Mugheerah, “Perhaps Allah has made you witness,”i.e. made you present in a similar situation, in other words, in such a tense situation with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. However,he ﷺdid not make you regret regarding the prudence and forbearance exercised during the hardship you encountered with him.He did not humiliate and degrade you. I witnessed fighting with the Messenger of Allahﷺ in many battles which he set out for.If he did not fight in the beginning of the day at sunrise, then he would wait until winds would start to blow, until the prayers would come after the inclination of the sun at noonday,” that is the disappearance of the intensity of the heat.That was part of the Prophetic kindness towards the army and soldiers, so that they were able to fight better in more temperate weather conditions.According to Aboo Dawood, “… thereafter, the divine help of victory would descend.”That manoeuvre would be part of the causes of the victory (divine help) which Allah has promised His servants.
This hadeeth shows that it is allowed to take the Jizyah from the Magi.
It highlights the merits of al-Numaan ibn al-Muqarrin(may Allah be pleased with him) and reveals the military expertise of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah, and his strength, magnanimity, eloquence, and articulation.
It expounds the virtue of consultation, and that there is no wrong for someone who is of a higher status to consult someone who is below him in status.
It also contains exemplification in order to clarify the intent of speech.
It shows the necessity to take the causes of the victory during war and facing the enemy..

Narrated Anas ibn Maalik (may Allah be pleased with him):Once the Prophetﷺcalled the Ansaar to grant them part of the land of Bahrain. On that they said, "No! By Allah, we will not accept it unless you grant a similar thing to our brothers from Quraysh as well." He said, "That will be theirs if Allah wishes." But when the Ansaar persisted in their request, he said, "After me, you will see others given preference over you in this respect (in which case) you should be patient till you meet me at the Pond (of Al-Kawthar).

Commentary : The Prophet ﷺappreciated and recognized the value and worth of everyone among the Emigrantsand the Ansaar.Heﷺ would advise them tolook after each other so as to maintain the brotherhood and bondsand help each otherto remain on the truth.
In this hadeeth, Anas ibn Maalik (may Allah be pleased with him)reports that the Prophet ﷺcalled the Ansaar in order to appoint for each one of them a portion feudally from the Jizyah and the land tax in Bahrain.It does not mean making them owners of the lands because the land conquered through a peace treaty cannot be distributed and feudally divided.The Prophet ﷺ had made a peace treaty with the people of Bahrain and imposed on them Jizyah.The area of Bahrain was considered to include what is now known as Bahrain, as well as al-Ahsaa and al-Qateef, situated in the eastern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.The Ansaar replied, “No, by Allah.We will not accept until it is also written for our Emigrant brothers from the Quraish whatever is going to be allocated for us.”This was not in opposition to the command of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ; rather they had understood that the Prophetﷺ intended to repay their kindness, and their statement was due to selflessness and their love for the Emigrants. The Prophet ﷺ replied, “That will be theirs if Allah wills it.”In a narration in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, it says, “That was not with the Prophet ﷺ”i.e.the Prophet ﷺ did not haveat that time enough to give the Emigrants like what he wanted to allocate for the Ansaar.It was also said that the meaning is that the Prophet ﷺ did not want to do [what the Ansaar were kindly proposing for the Emigrants], because he had already divided the lands of banoo al-Nadeer for the Emigrants earlier.However, the Ansaar were insistent that the Prophet ﷺ prescribe that for the Emigrants first, to the extent that the Prophet ﷺ had to say to them, “You will see [favouritism] after me,”from the rulers who will favor themselves over the Ansaar with the worldly things, will favour others over them, and will not give them a large portion in state affairs,“hence, remain patient until you meet me at the Pond” wherein they will receive great rewards and abundant recompense, which will be inlieu of this favouritism. The Pond of the Prophet ﷺ is a huge collection of water where the believers will go to get water on the plains of the Day of Judgement.In the narration of Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Saheeh Muslim, Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) states, “However, we could not forbear” the favouritism and tyranny as the Messenger of Allah ﷺ had commanded us to do.
This hadeeth highlights the selflessness of the Ansaar,how they gave preference to others over themselves and kindly exceeded the bounds in generosity.
It encourages us to remain forbearing during calamities, and it affirms the Pond (Pond) for the Prophet ﷺ on the Day of Judgement..