Narrated Jubayr ibn Haiyyah: `Umar sent the Muslims to theoutskirts ofbig cities to fight the disbelievers. When Al-Hurmuzaan embraced Islam, `Umar said to him. "I would like to consult you regarding these cities which I intend to invade." Al-Hurmuzaan said, "Yes, the example of these cities and their inhabitants who are the enemies of the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; if one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Persia. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau." So, `Umar sent us (to Khosrau) appointing Al-Nu`maan ibn Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, "Let one of you talk to me!" Al-Mugheerah replied, "Ask whatever you wish." The other asked, "Who are you?" Al-Mugheerah replied, "We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah alone or give Jizyah (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:-- “Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master." Al-Nu' maan said to Al-Mugheerah, "If you had participated in a similar battle, in the company of Allah's Messengerﷺhe would not have blamed you for waiting, nor would he have disgraced you. But I accompanied Allah's Messenger in many battles, and it was his custom that if he did not fight early by daytime, he would wait till the wind had started blowing and the time for the prayer was due (i.e. after midday).
In this hadeeth, the Taabi’ee Jubayr ibn Hayyah reports that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab (may Allah be pleased with him) – during his caliphate – sent fighters to the outskirts of big cities.It means that he sent them to different cities and towns to fight the polytheists. However,Hurmuzaan, one of the leaders of the Persians, whose real name was Rustum, entered Islam willingly.He embraced Islam after the Battle of al-Qaadisiyyah, which happened in the year fourteen of the Hijrah.‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) drew him closer to him and would consult him [concerning the state of affairs of the Persians].This occurred after the defeat of the Persians and after the Muslims occupied the Metropolises of Persia.‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) told him that he would consult him about these battles,i.e.the battles of Persia, Isfahan, and Azerbaijan.This was because he was more aware of their affairs than anyone else.Hurmuzaanagreed to give advice to ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), and he gave an example about this land, meaning, about its campaign.He explained that its example in terms of the people residing in it among the enemies of the Muslims is as the example of a bird having a head, two wings, and legs.If one of the wings is clipped, the two legs with a wing and head will still stand up to move.If the other wing is clipped, then the two legs and the head will still stand up to move forward. However, if it is slaughtered (meaning beheaded), then the two legs, the wings, and the head become immobile, the whole body will become useless.If the head is removed, everything else will fall apart.The head here was Kosrae;one wing was Caesar (Qaysar), the emperor of the Romans, and the other wing was the Persians.Then, he gave advice to ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) to command the Muslims to set out to fight and to start the fight withKosrae, as he was the head, and his beheading would entail clipping the two wings.
When it was the twentieth year of the Hijrah, ‘Umar took the warriors out to battle and appointed al-Nu’maan ibn Muqarrin (may Allah be pleased with him) as their commander.The army set out at night until they had entered the land of the enemy, Nahawand. Now it is an Iranian city which is situated in the highlands toward the south of the Zagros Mountains.The governor of Kosrae came out to attack them – he was known as Bundaar – in an army of forty thousand strong men from the people of the Persian mountains and Kerman (which is now an Iranian city which is situated in the central region of the country), and with the people of other regions too, such as Nahawand and Isfahan (Isfahan is now an Iranian city and the provincial capital of the province of Isfahan, 340 km away from Tehran).A hundred and ten thousand enemy soldiers set out to counterattack the Muslim army.A translator stood up and said, “A spokesperson should speak to me.”Al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah replied, “Ask whatever you wish to ask.”He asked him, “Who are you, people?” He asked purposefully in the context of a person who somehow does not know them with the intention of belittling them. Al-Mugheerah answered, “We are a people from the Arabs who were once in anunfortunate state and in severe calamity.We would suck the skins (meaning the skins of the animals [to survive]).”This is a metaphor for having very little food and he meant thereby hunger.“We would wear wool.”That is a metaphor for having very little clothing.“We used to worship trees and stones.”This is an expression for their severe ignorance.They remained in that state until the Exalted and Mightily Majestic Lord of the earths and heavens, “sent a Prophet amongst us, whose father and mother were known to us.”This means they were fully aware of the family tree of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.He meant thereby to venerate the Messenger of Allahﷺ and to exalt him and purify him from the belief that he came to create bloodbath.“Our Prophet and the Messenger of Our Lord ﷺ commanded us to fight you until you worship Allah Alone or that you pay us the Jizyah.”The Persians used to be Magi, worshipping fire.
He continued, “Our Prophet ﷺ has transmitted to us the message from Our Lord that anyone amongst us killed in fighting for the cause of Allah, then he goes to the bliss in Paradise, and no Paradise of that sort has ever been seen before. As for the one who stays alive amongst us and has not been martyred, then he attains victory and owns your necks (you) by imprisoning you.”In this statement, there is an indication that a Muslim fights until he attains either victory or martyrdom.
Al-Nu’maan (may Allah be pleased with him) delayed the fighting, while al-Mugheerah wanted to fight straight after his statement with theinterpreter.Al-Nu’maan told al-Mugheerah, “Perhaps Allah has made you witness,”i.e. made you present in a similar situation, in other words, in such a tense situation with the Messenger of Allah ﷺ. However,he ﷺdid not make you regret regarding the prudence and forbearance exercised during the hardship you encountered with him.He did not humiliate and degrade you. I witnessed fighting with the Messenger of Allahﷺ in many battles which he set out for.If he did not fight in the beginning of the day at sunrise, then he would wait until winds would start to blow, until the prayers would come after the inclination of the sun at noonday,” that is the disappearance of the intensity of the heat.That was part of the Prophetic kindness towards the army and soldiers, so that they were able to fight better in more temperate weather conditions.According to Aboo Dawood, “… thereafter, the divine help of victory would descend.”That manoeuvre would be part of the causes of the victory (divine help) which Allah has promised His servants.
This hadeeth shows that it is allowed to take the Jizyah from the Magi.
It highlights the merits of al-Numaan ibn al-Muqarrin(may Allah be pleased with him) and reveals the military expertise of al-Mugheerah ibn Shu’bah, and his strength, magnanimity, eloquence, and articulation.
It expounds the virtue of consultation, and that there is no wrong for someone who is of a higher status to consult someone who is below him in status.
It also contains exemplification in order to clarify the intent of speech.
It shows the necessity to take the causes of the victory during war and facing the enemy..