| 2 Bukhari hadiths

Narrated Jaabir (may Allah be pleased with him):Allah's Messengerﷺsaid (to me), "If the property of Bahrain had come to us, I would have given you so much and so much." But the Bahrain property did not come till the Prophetﷺhad died. When the Bahrain property came. Aboo Bakr(may Allah be pleased with him)ordered somebody to announce, "Any person who has money claim on Allah's Messengerﷺor whom Allah's Messengerﷺhad promised something, should come to us." So, I went to him and said, "Allah's Messengerﷺhad promised to give me so much and so much." Aboo Bakr scooped up money with both hands thrice for me." (The sub-narrator Sufyaan illustrated this action by scooping up with both hands and said, "Ibn al-Munkadir, another sub-narrator, used to illustrate it in this way.") Narrated Jaabir (may Allah be pleased with him): Once I went to Aboo Bakr and asked for the money but he did not give me, and I went to him again, but he did not give me, so I went to him for the third time and said, "I asked you, but you did not give me; then I asked you (for the second time) and you did not give me; then I asked you (for the third time) but you did not give me. You should either give me or allow yourself to be considered a miser regarding my case." Aboo Bakr said, "You tell me that I am a miser with regard to you. But really, whenever I rejected your request, I had the inclination to give you." (In another narration Jaabir added:) So, Aboo Bakr scooped up money with both hands for me and asked me to count it. I found out that it was five hundred. Aboo Bakr told me to take twice that amount. In another narration, it reads: “He said: No sickness is more harmful than miserliness.”

Commentary : The Prophet ﷺ liked to always keep his promises, which is from the manners of the believers.He ﷺwould often promise his Companions - especially those with needs and debts - to give them from the wealth that came from the booty which he receivedfrom the cities that entered Islam.
In this hadeeth, Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that the Prophet ﷺ had promised him that if the wealth of Jizyah came to him from Bahrain, he would give him “such-and-such, such-and-such, and such-and-such [an amount];” showing two handfuls three times. Bahrain, at that time,referred to what is known today as Bahrain, as well as Al-Ahsaa and Al-Qateef(which are located in eastern Saudi Arabia).Other accounts have shown, according to al-Bukhaaree and others, that the Prophet ﷺ sent al-‘Alaa ibn al-Hadramee to al-Munthir ibn Saawa, the governor of the Persians in Bahrain, calling him to Islam, so he became Muslim.The Magi of those territories made a peace pact with the Muslims on the condition of paying the Jizyah.When the Prophet ﷺ promised Jaabir to give him a share from the Jizyah of Bahrain, the wealth did not reach al-Madeenah until after the Prophet ﷺ and his soul was taken away.Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) took over the Caliphate after him ﷺ andthen,when the money of Jizyah arrived from Bahrain, Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) ordered a man to proclaim - it was stated that that proclaimer was Bilaal (may Allah be pleased with him) - who called out loudly, “Whoever has given a loan to the Messenger of Allahﷺ or there is a promise of money from him, then let him come to us so that we can fulfil his rights.” Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) did this based on his knowledge of what the Prophetﷺ would do in terms of promises and taking loans to fulfil the needs of the people until the wealth of Jizyah or booty came to him.
So, Jaabir came to Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with them) and told him that the Messenger of Allah ﷺhad told him: “So-and-so,” and this is a metaphor for what the Messenger of Allah ﷺ had promised him. Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) scooped for him three times.It was said that it was like a handful and that it was what fills both palms. The narrator of this hadeeth, Sufyaan ibn ‘Uyaynah, demonstrated it when he explained what it meant, and he scooped using both palms.
In a different narration, it mentions that he came to Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) and asked him to give him three times, and each time he did not give him. Thereupon, Jaabir (may Allah be pleased with him) said to him, “Either you will give me, or you will be stingy to me.” Miserliness is that a person withholds what is obligatory upon him and does not pay it. Hence, Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him)remarked to him disapprovingly, “Did you really say, ‘or be stingy to me?!’” I have not held back from giving you at any time, but I really intended to give you.”Aboo Bakr only delayed in giving either due to being busy with something more important than that, or from the fear that it could lead to many others starting to demand for similar things.Aboo Bakr filled his both palms with money and asked him to count it.He counted it and found it to be equivalent to five hundred in number, so Aboo Bakr told him, “Take a similar amount twice again,” just as what the Messenger of Allah ﷺ promised him.
In one narration, it is mentioned that Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him)asked him, “And which disease is more severe than miserliness?!” That is, which defect is worse than a person being described as miserly?
This hadeeth demonstrates the goodness of Aboo Bakr as a successor to the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, his effortstoward the establishment of his Sunnah ﷺ and his implementation of his promises ﷺ.
It shows that the ruler has the right to allocate a portion of the booty orFay’ to his deputies and the deputies of the Muslims, and it highlights the importance of paying off the debts of the deceased after his death..

Narrated Jubayr ibn Mut`im(may Allah be pleased with him)The Prophetﷺtalked about war prisoners of Badr saying, "Had Al-Mut`im ibn ‘Adi been alive and interceded with me for these mean people, I would have freed them for his sake."

Commentary : One who fails to thank people, then he has not been thankful to Allah.The Prophetﷺ was the keenest on preserving the rights of people, and he treated them with kindness, and interacted and addressed the people according to their status and appropriate positions, giving them the due value and respect which they deserved.

Al-Mut’im ibn ‘Adiyy was the one who endeavoured to overturn the scroll that Quraysh had suspended on the Ka’bah, which entailed boycotting Banee Haashim and Banee al-Muttalib.Hence, the Prophet ﷺ noted this noble deed of his.

In this hadeeth, Jubayribn Mut’im reports that the Prophet ﷺ said after the Battle of Badr that took place in the second year of the Hijrah, that if al-Mut’im ibn ‘Adiyy was alive and appealed tohim to forgive those dirtypolytheist prisoners, he would have approved his request and would have set them free without ransom. The Prophet ﷺ wanted to express his gratitude to him not only due to his noble endeavours to end the boycott of Banee Haashim that Quraysh had previously initiated,as written on their scroll that was hung on the Ka’bah.It was also becausewhen he ﷺ returned from Taaif to Makkah, he returned under his protection. However, the death of al-Mut’im happened in the month of Safar during the second year of the Hijrah, about seven months before the Battle of Badr.
It is possible that by this statement, the Prophet ﷺ wanted to comfort the heart of his son Jubayribn Mut’im and incline his heart further towards Islam. The statement of the Prophet ﷺcontains anindication of the lofty status of the Prophet ﷺ and belittlement of the condition of those disbelievers, as his words showed that he did not care about them such that he would not mind entrusting their affairs to a polytheist who had some status in his eyes.
The reasons the Prophet ﷺcalled the disbelieving prisoners‘ dirty and stinkingindividuals’ is either due to their ritual impurity due to their disbelief or because those to whom he referred were those whose bodies had turned to stinking corpses thrown into the well of Badr. However, if al-Mut’im interceded with the Prophet ﷺto hand their bodies over, then the Prophet ﷺ would have turned their bodies over to him.
This hadeeth shows that it is permissible to show compassion to prisoners and effectuate their release without ransom, and that it is allowed to accept the intercession of a noble person on behalf of sinners in order to attract his heart to Islam.
Itshows that one should give the best rewardto someone who did a favour or a kind act for him. .

Narrated Jubayr ibn Mut`im:I and `Uthmaan ibn `Affaan went to Allah's Messengerﷺand said, "O Allah's Messenger! You have given to Banee Al-Muttalib and left us although they and we are of the same kinship to you." Allah's Messengerﷺsaid, "Baneeal-Muttalib and Banee Haashim are one and the same." The Prophetﷺdid not give a share to Banee `Abd Shams and Banee Nawfal.

Commentary : Allah bestowed His grace on the Muslims by helping them conquer the fort of Khaybar in the seventh year of the Hijrah.The Messenger ﷺ acquired therefrom many spoils, and he gave Banee Haashim and Banee ‘Abdul Muttalib of the fifth share which he ﷺ took of the spoils, while he did not give anything to Banee ‘Abd Shams and Banee Nawfal.
Jubayribn Mut’im – who happened to be from Banee Nawfal – reports that he and ‘Uthmaan ibn ‘Affaan – who was from Banee ‘Abd Shams - went to the Messenger of Allah ﷺand said, “O Messenger of Allah!You gave Banee ‘Abdul Muttalib from the spoils, and you did not give us anything although they and we have the same status with you,i.e. we are all brothers as we are all the sons of ‘Abd Manaaf.
This is because ‘Abd Shams, Haashim, and al-Muttalib were allmaternal half-brothers whose mother was ‘Aatikah bint Murrah. As for Nawfal, he was their paternal half-brother whose mother was Waaqidah bint ‘Amr al-Maaziniyyah.These four became the masters and leaders of their people after the demise of their father, and so they took the mantle of leadership. Haashim took the responsibility of supplying water to the pilgrims and feeding the needy pilgrims after his father’s demise. It is to him and to his brother al-Muttalib the attribution of the lineage of the close relatives is referred to, and they were one and the same. This is why the Prophet ﷺ stated, “Banoo al-Muttalib and Banoo Haashim are one and the same.” In other words, the same ruling applies to the two of them in terms of the rights that they deserve because there was an oath of alliance between them in the pre-Islamic era.For this reason, when Quraysh besieged Banoo Haashim in the valley and prevented the people from marrying them and trading with them, in that instance, Banoo al-Muttalib tethered alongside Banoo Haashim in the valley, as a protest on behalf of the Messenger of Allahﷺ and for his protection.As a result,the Muslims among the tribe entered the valley as a form of obedience to Allah and His Messengerﷺ, while the disbelievers among them entered the valley as a form of loyalty for the clan, self-esteem and obediencefor Aboo Taalib, the uncle of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.On the other hand, Banoo Nawfal and Banoo ‘Abd Shams did not enter the valley, though they were first cousins. They even fought against them, resisted them, and turned the clans of Quraysh to fight the Messenger ﷺand the Muslims who were with him.
This hadeeth shows that the fifth of the spoils was reserved for the Prophet ﷺ to dispose of it as he wanted, and to give it to his relatives, and withhold from whomever he wanted.
It also shows that one should take care of family members when giving, and shows that close kin should have a sharefrom gifts, because ‘Uthmaan and Jubayr only asked for the gift due to their kinship..

Narrated Saalih ibn Ibraaheem ibn ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf from his father from his grandfather:While I was standing in the row on the Day (of the Battle) of Badr, I looked to my right and my left and found that two young boys from the Ansaar are on my both sides. At that moment, I wished that I stood between two strong and fierce men instead. One of them called my attention saying, "O Uncle! Do you know Aboo Jahl?" I said, " O my nephew! Yes,what do you want from him?" He said, "I have been informed that he abuses Allah's Messengerﷺ. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, if I should see him, then my body will not leave his body till either of us meet his fate." I was astonished at that talk. Then the other boy called my attention saying the same as the other had said. After a while I saw Aboo Jahl walking amongst the people. I said (to the boys), "Look! This is the man you asked me about." So, both of them attacked him with their swords and struck him to death and returned to Allah's Messenger to inform him of that. Allah's Messengerﷺasked, "Which of you has killed him?" Each of them said, "I Have killed him." Allah's Messengerﷺasked, "Have you cleaned your swords?" They said, "No. " He then looked at their swords and said, "No doubt, you both have killed him, and the spoils of the deceased will be given to Mu’aath ibn `Amr ibn al-Jamooh." The two boys were Mu’aath ibn 'Afra and Mu’aath ibn `Amr ibn al-Jamooh.

Commentary : The children of the Emigrants and the Ansaar grew upon on the pristine nature of Islam.The Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) brought them up righteously as they are the best of the people after the prophets and witnessed the Prophet ﷺ walking amidst them.These children grew up loving him, and they learnt to sacrifice themselves for him since their childhood. This hadeeth presents to us one of the aspects that manifested their unconditional love for the Prophet ﷺ.
In this hadeeth, ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf(may Allah be pleased with him)reports that he was lining up with the other Muslim fighters for the Battle of Badr that happened between the Muslims and the polytheists of Makkah during the second year of the Hijrah.He looked to his right and left, and he found two young boys of a young age from the Ansaar.He wished that he was standing between two strong and fierce men, instead, because an older person would more entrenched in war and more rightful to be beside him than these young fighters.One of these two boys was Mu’aathibn ‘Amr ibn al-Jamooh(may Allah be pleased with him), and the other boy was Mu’aathibn ‘Afraa (may Allah be pleased with him).One of them gestured,such that he looked with his eye towards him or touched him with his hand and asked him, “Uncle, do you know Aboo Jahl?”‘Abd al-Rahmaan answered him, “Of course, and why are you asking about him, o nephew!”The boy replied, “I heard that he abuses the Messenger of Allahﷺ,” and then he swore that if he saw him, he would not let him go, until the one closer to the death between died. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn ‘Awf was astonished by the statement of this boy, as it was indicative of his perfect chivalry.Then, the second one gestured to him and made exactly the same statement as the first one.It wasn’t long until ‘Abd al-Rahmaan spotted Aboo Jahl, who happened to be roaming amongst the people, moving around and not remaining still at one place.He showed them where their target was and informed them that this particular man was Aboo Jahl, concerning whom they had asked him earlier.Both of them hastened towards him with their swords, meaning they sprinted with their swords to hit him until they killed him.Then they returned to the Prophet ﷺ and informed him of their killing of Aboo Jahl.The Prophetﷺ asked them, “Who amongst you killed him?”Both answered, “I killed him.”The Prophet ﷺ inquired, “Have you both cleaned your swords?”Meaning, from the blood that is on it.They both answered, “No.” The Prophet ﷺ looked at their swords to see the extent of their penetration into the body of the killed (by looking at the blood stains on them), to judge who was more effective in extracting his soul, and to decide on giving the killed person’s booty to the one who was more effective in killing him.If they had rubbed their swords clean, then the indication of this reality would not be clear.Thereafter, the Prophet ﷺ informed them that each one of them participated with his brother in killing him. Heﷺ gave his acquired booty and armaments to Mu’aathibn ‘Amr ibn al-Jamooh, as he learned that it was his sword that was instrumental in killing him.The reason he said to them, “Both of you killed him,” was to grant comfort to the heart of the other in the sense that he participated in killing him and in acquiring the great rewards that are based on this noble act, though there is a difference between them both in precedence and causation. It is reported on the authority of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ood that he found Aboo Jahal still had his last trace of life, thus, he gave him the last stroke and removed his head from his body [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree and Saheeh Muslim].
This hadeeth shows that the armament of the killed disbeliever in war is not always subject to the one fifth portion (khums), and it can be given to his killer instead.
It confirms the legality of the establishment of financial rights through circumstantial evidence because the Prophet ﷺproved who killed Aboo Jahl by examining the blood on the sword, and judged for him to receive his armaments.
It shows that one should be angry and hasten to fight for the sake of Allah and His Messengerﷺ.
The hadeeth shows that a person should conceal his intention to do good from others, lest they supersede him, and that it is important to avoid belittling anyone, as sometimes one who is belittled with regard to carrying out a task could be greater than what he is perceived as in the hearts, and be more rightful to carry out that task.
Lastly, it shows that it is important for the ruler and the judge to study circumstantial evidence in order to give preference to the statement of one claimants over the statement of another..

Narrated Aboo Qaatadah (may Allah be pleased with him): We set out in the company of Allah's Messengerﷺon the day (of the battle) of Hunayn. When we faced the enemy, the Muslims retreated, and I saw a pagan throwing himself over a Muslim. I turned around and came upon him from behind and hit him on the shoulder with the sword. He (i.e. the pagan) came towards me and seized me so violently that I felt as if it were death itself, but death overtook him, and he released me. I followed `Umar ibn Al Khattab and asked him, "What is wrong with the people (fleeing)?" He replied, "This is the Will of Allah," After the people returned, the Prophetﷺsat and said, "Anyone who has killed an enemy and has a proof of that, will possess his spoils." I got up and said, "Who will be a witness for me?" and then sat down. The Prophetﷺagain said, "Anyone who has killed an enemy and has proof of that, will possess his spoils." I (again) got up and said, "Who will be a witness for me?" and sat down. Then the Prophetﷺsaid the same for the third time. I again got up, and Allah's Messengerﷺsaid, "O Aboo Qataadah! What is your story?" Then I narrated the whole story to him. A man (got up and) said, "O Allah's Messenger! He is speaking the truth, and the spoils of the killed man are with me. So please compensate him on my behalf." On that Aboo Bakr As-Siddeeq(may Allah be pleased with him) said, "No, by Allah, he ﷺwill not agree to give you the spoils gained by one of Allah's Lions who fights on the behalf of Allah and His Messenger." The Prophetﷺsaid, "Aboo Bakr has spoken the truth." So, Allah's Messengerﷺgave the spoils to me. I sold that armour (i.e. the spoils) and with its price I bought a garden at Banee Salimah, and this was my first property which I gained after my conversion to Islam..

Commentary : The Prophet ﷺ explained the rulings on jihad, spoils, and additionally rewarded booty; he also made it clear what every fighter deserves, and when a Muslim deserves receiving the belongings of a slain polytheist.
In this hadeeth, Aboo Qataadah (may Allah be pleased with him) reports that he came out with the Messenger of Allah ﷺin the year when the Battle of Hunayn took place.Hunayn is a valley, the distance between which and Makkah is three miles.The battle took place in the eighth year of the Hijrahandwas between the Muslims and the people of Taaif, namely the tribes of Hawaazin and Thaqeef.When the Muslims met with the enemy, the Muslims resorted to some sort of manoeuvre, meaning that it entailed moving back and forth and some sort of disarray.He used this word to describe the scenario to avoid using a negative word denoting defeat.This military manoeuvre happened in some sections of the army,but not involving the Messenger of Allah ﷺ and those around him.Aboo Qataadah (may Allah be pleased with him) saw a man of the idolators who had gone on top of a man from the Muslims, meaning he had overpowered him and was ready to kill him, or had toppled him and was sitting on him to kill him. He(may Allah be pleased with him) turned to him from behind until he struck him with a sword on the vein of his neck; the Arabic word Habl al-‘Aatik signifies a nerve, or a muscle string located at a place where the robe fits on the neck, or the place between the shoulder blade and neck where one’s robe sits, or between the neck and the shoulder.However,this polytheist was so strong that he stood up after the strike, turned to Aboo Qataadah (may Allah be pleased with him) and hugged him until Aboo Qataadah(may Allah be pleased with him) found the severity like the severity of death, but soon death overtook this polytheist, so he let Aboo Qataadah go.Thereafter, Aboo Qataadah (may Allah be pleased with him) went to join ‘Umar ibn al-Khattaab, and asked him, “What is the matter with the people who seemed defeated? And why are they fleeing?” So, ‘Umar told him that the command of Allah is overpowering. That means, whoever trusts in Him and does not admire himself [in terms of his strength and number], the He will help him, and not as what the Muslims did at the beginning, when they were impressed by their multitude, it did not avail them anything, and they were defeated in the early moments of the battle; however, the praiseworthy outcome is for the righteous who place the commands of Allah before their eyes and entrust their affairs to Allah.
Then the Muslims returned to the battle after retreating.That occurred after the Prophet ﷺ called out to them, “I am the Prophet, not a liar. I am the son of [the brave] ‘Abdul Muttalib.”He ordered his uncle al-‘Abbaas(may Allah be pleased with him) to call out to the people to return, as the narrations of Bukhaaree and Muslim explain.Allah, the Glorified, has mentioned what happened then in His Mighty Book; He Almighty states:{Indeed, Allah has given you [believers] victory on many battlefields, even at the Battle of Ḥunain when you took pride in your great numbers, but they proved of no advantage to you. The earth, despite its vastness, seemed to close in on you, then you turned back in retreat.Then Allah sent down His reassurance upon His Messenger and the believers, and sent down forces you could not see, and punished those who disbelieved. Such was the reward of the disbelievers.}(Quran 9:25-26).
After the end of the battle, the Muslims took the spoils of Hawaazin and Thaqeef, and the Prophet ﷺ sat and said, “Whoever killed a person, he must provide a proof,”i.e. he must have a sign or witnesses, “then he will receive the killed person’s armaments,” that is the arms and other personal belongings the killed person was carrying at that time.
Aboo Qataadah(may Allah be pleased with him) said, “I got up and said,‘Who will testify in my favour that this man was killed by me?’” Then he sat down.Thereafter, he repeated this statement twice - as if he was talking to himself - and in the last instance, the Messenger of Allah asked him, “What is wrong with you, Aboo Qataadah?” So he began narrating to him what had happened.A man exclaimed, “He has spoken the truth, O Messenger of Allah, his booty is with me, accept to give it to me instead.” He meant that he wanted to keep the booty and he was asking the Messenger of Allah ﷺ to give Aboo Qataadah something instead of it. Thereupon, Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) replied to him immediately, “No way, by Allah!” I.e. it is not yours, by Allah, “then he ﷺ shall not turn to a lion among the lions of Allah [to take away his right],” meaning Aboo Qataadah (may Allah be pleased with him).The comprehensive meaning of this is that if Aboo Qataadah s truthful about the fact that he is the owner of the booty, then it is plausible that the Prophet ﷺ shall not turn to a person who in his bravery is like a lion, who fights in defence of Allah and His Messenger, thereafter, taking away his right from him and handing it over to you without the approval of the former.It is important to satisfy the heart of the fighter who killed a polytheist first.However, if agrees to leave his acquired arms to the other person, he is free to do so, otherwise, his right shall be returned to him in terms of the acquired armaments.The Prophet ﷺ said, “He is right,” meaning, Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him).Thus, the Prophet ﷺ gave Aboo Qataadah the killed soldier’s armaments after becoming aware of the proof that he was the one who killed the enemy fighter.
Thereafter, Aboo Qataadah narrated that he sold his spoils and bought an orchard in Banee Salamah instead. Banee Salamah is a clan of the Ansaar, and thereafter, Aboo Qataadah stated that this orchard was the first wealth that he acquired or bought in Islam.
From the benefits of this hadeeth is that it expounds the virtue of Aboo Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) where he issued a fatwa in the presence of the Prophet ﷺ, and the Prophet ﷺ approved his ruling and was satisfied with it.
The hadeeth highlights the merit of Aboo Qataadah (may Allah be pleased with him), whom Aboo Bakr(may Allah be pleased with him) called a lion from the lions of Allah, who fights for Allah and His Messenger, which the Prophet ﷺ affirmed.
This hadeeth shows that the killer is more deserving of the special booty of the one whom he killed, that the special booty will not be divided into the one-fifth share (al-Khums), and that it is given to the fighter who killed the enemy fighter before the booty is divided..